Department of Chemistry

Malcolm E. Kenney

Hinman Hurlbut Professor of Chemistry

216.368.3739      mek9@case.edu      Millis 432

Kenney Research Group Site »

Interests: Biochemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Materials & Energy, Organometallic Chemistry, Bio-Inorganic Chemistry, Computational Chemistry, Drug Delivery, Dyes & Pigments, Medicinal Chemistry, Nanotechnology, Organosilicon Chemistry, Photochemistry, Photodynamic Therapy, Polymers

B.S., University of Redlands, 1950
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1954
Postdoctoral Associate, Cornell University, 1954


Drugs for Photodynamic Therapy

Compounds of the phthalocyanine and napthalocyanine types are being synthesized and characterized for use in a cooperative research program on photodynamic therapy. The work is focused on the synthesis of compounds that have the desired light absorption, solubility, polarity, and stability. The compounds made are characterized by spectroscopy and then used in collaborative cell and animal studies. The work has resulted in a drug, Pc 4, which has been approved for use in Phase 1 human clinical trials with cancer patients.

Link to video of Pc 4 in Phase 1 clinical trials at University Hospitals Ireland Cancer Center.


Pc 4 - Clinical Trials

(Requires media player software such as VLC)

Audio description of the drug Pc 4

A New Synthetic Route to Organosilicon Compounds

A new route to organosilicon compounds based on substitution reactions on silicates is being explored. The route differs from the conventional route to organosilicon compounds in that it does not depend on the reduction of silicon dioxide to silicon. The route offers access to new organosilicon compounds and has the potential to be more efficient than the traditional route.

Compounds for the Fabrication of Microelectronic Devices

A program aimed at the synthesis and characterization of phthalocyanines and other complexes for use in the fabrication of microelectronic and molecular electronic devices is being carried out. Some of the phthalocyanines being made are designed to have the shape and polarity necessary to permit them to be deposited by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique as monolayers and multilayers on partially prefabricated chips. Emphasis is given in the work to the design and synthesis of useful compounds and to the characterization of these compounds.

Selected Publications
  • "The Peripheral Benzodiazepine Receptor in Photodynamic Therapy with the Phthalocyanine Photosensitizer Pc 4", Morris, Rachel L.; Varnes, Marie E.; Kenney, Malcolm E.; Li, Ying-Syi; Kashif, Azizuddin, Photochem. Photobiol. B 2002, 75, 652-661.
  • "Synthesis and Characterization of Organosilicon Sheet and Tube Polymers", Chao, Timothy C.; Katsoulis, Dimitris, E.; Kenney, Malcolm E. Chem. Mater. 2001, 13, 4269-4277.
  • "Synthesis and Excited State Dynamics of μ-Oxo Group IV Metal Phthalocyanine Dimers: A Laser Photoexcitation Study", Pelliccioli, A.P.; Henbest, K.; Kwag, G.; Carvagno, T. R.; Kenney, M. E.; Rodgers, M. A. J. J. Phys. Chem. A 2001, 105, 1757-1766.
  • "Quantification of the Selective Retention of Palladium Octabutoxynapthalocyanine, a Potential Photothermal Drug, in Mouse Tissues", Bucking, M.; Dickson, E. F. G.; Farahani, M.; Fischer, F.; Holms, D.; Jori, G.; Kennedy, J. C.; Kenney, M. E.; Peng, X.; Pottier, R. H.; Weagle, g. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 2000, 58, 87-43.
  • "Synthesis and Characterization of Deep-Red Germanium Octabutoxynaphthalocyanine Photosensitizers", Cheng, G-Z.; Ji, Z-P.; Kenney, M. E. J. Wuhan Univ (Nat. Sci. Ed.) 2000, Mar, 54-46.
  • "Photothermal Sensitization of Amelanotic Melanoma Cells by Ni(II) Octabutoxynaphthalocyanine", Busetti, A.; Soncin, M.; Reddi, E.; Rodgers, M. A. J.; Kenney, M. E.; Jori, G. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 1999, 53, 103-109.
  • "Hydrolyzed Portland Cement Clinker and Air-Cooled Blast Furnace Slag SO2 Sorbents", Hays, M. D.; Kenney, M. E. Proc. Annu. Int. Pittsburgh Coal Conf. 1999, 16th, 377-389.
  • "Phthalocyanine 4 (Pc 4) Photodynamic Therapy of Human OVCAR-3 Tumor Xenographs", Colussi, Valdir G.; Feyes, Denise K.; Mulvihill, John W.; Li, Ying-Syi; Kenney, Malcolm E.; Elmets, Craig A.; Oleinick, Nancy L.; Mukhtar, Hasan Photochem. Photobiol. 1999, 69, 236-241.
  • "Sheet and Tube Organosilicon Polymers", Katsoulis, D. E.; Chao, T. C.-S.; McQuiston, E. A.; Chen, Chenggang; Kenney, Malcolm E. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 1998, 519, 321-326.
  • "New Calcium-Based Sorbents for Flue Gas Desulfurization", Chiang, Ray-Kuang; Kwag, Gwanghoon; Kenney, Malcolm E. In Dry Scrubbing Technologies for Flue Gas Desulfurization, Toole-O'Neil, B., Ed.; Kluwer Academic: Boston, 1998, 115-206.
  • "Treatment of Malignant Melanoma by High-Peak-Power 1064 nm Irradiation Followed by Photodynamic Therapy", Busetti, Allessandra; Soncin, Marina; Jori, Giulio; Kenney, Malcolm E.; Rodgers, Michael A. J. Photochem. Photobiol. 1998, 68, 377-381.
  • "Photoinactivation of Amelanotic and Melanotic Melanoma Cells Sensitized by Axially Substituted Si-Naphthalocyanines", Soncin, Marina; Busetti, Alessandra; Biolo, Roberta; Jori, Giulio; Kwag, Gwanghoon; Li, Ying-Syi; Kenney, Malcolm E.; Rodgers, Michael A. J. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 1998, 42(3), 202-210.
  • "A Comparative Analysis of Silicon Phthalocyanine Photosensitizers for in vivo Photodynamic Therapy of RIF-1 Tumors in C3H Mice", Anderson, Cathy Y.; Frye, K.; Tubesing, K. A.; Li, Ying-Syi; Kenney, Malcolm E.; Mukhtar, Hasan; Elmets, Craig A. Photochem. Photobiol. 1998, 67, 332-336.
  • "Pharmacokinetic and Phototherapeutic Properties of Axially Substituted Si(IV)-tetradibenzobarrelenooctabutoxyphthalocyanines", Soncin, M.; Busetti, A.; Reddi, E.; Jori, G.; Rihter, B. D.; Kenney, M. E.; Rodgers, M. A. J. J. Photochem. Photobiol., B: Biol 1997, 40, 163-167.
  • "Organosilicon Sheet and Tube Polymers - Further Characterization and Potential Utility", Katsoulis, Dimitris E., Chao, Timothy C.-S.; McQuiston, Elizabeth A.; Chen, Chenggang; Kenney, Malcolm E. Polym. Prepr. (Am. Chem. Soc., Div. Polym. Chem.) 1998, 39(1), 514-515.
  • "Organosilicon Sheet and Tube Polymers - Synthesis and Characterization", Kenney, Malcolm E.; Chen, Chenggang; Katsoulis, Dimitris, E.; Chao, Timothy Chi-Shan Polym. Prepr. (Am. Chem. Soc., Div. Polym. Chem.) 1998, 39(1), 497-498.
  • "Thin Film Preparation of Oligomeric Si-Phthalocyanines: Thermal Stability and Sublimation Behavior", Reusch, B.; Ziegler, C.; Kwag, G.; Kenney, M. E.; Göpel, W. Thin Solid Films 1997, 299, 63-66.
  • "Structure-Activity and Mechanism Studies on Silicon Phthalocyanines with Plasmodium falciparum in the Dark and Under Red Light", Zhao, Xiao-Juan; Lustigman, Sara; Li, Ying-Syi; Kenney, Malcolm E.; Ben-Hur, Ehud Photochem. Photobiol. 1997, 66, 282-287.
  • "Synthesis of a Series of Octabutoxy- and Octabutoxybenzophthalocyanines and Photophysical Properties of Two Members of the Series", Aoudia, Mohamed; Cheng, Gongzhen; Kennedy, Vance O.; Kenney, Malcolm E.; Rodgers, Michael A. J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1997, 119, 6029-6039.
  • "The Synthesis, Photophysical and Photobiological Properties and in vitro Structure-Activity Relationships of a Set of Silicon Phthalocyanine PDT Photosensitizers", He, Jin; Larkin, Hedy E.; Li, Ying-Syi; Rihter, Boris. D.; Zaidi, S. I. A.; Rodgers, Michael A. J.; Mukhtar, H.; Kenney, Malcolm E.; Oleinick, Nancy L. Photochem. Photobiol 1997, 65, 581-586.
  • "Approaches for Optimizing and Tuning the Optical Limiting Response of Phthalocyanine Complexes", Perry, J. W.; Mansour, K.; Marder, S. R.; Chen, C.-T.; Miles, P.; Kenney, M. E.; Kwag, G. Mater. Res. Symp. Proc., 1995, 374, 257-264.