Benvenuto, Richard. Amy Lowell. Boston:Twayne Publishers, 1985.
- This 1985 biography devotes its first 30 pages to Lowell's background
and early years. The bulk of Benvenuto's text explores the poet's work,
relationships, influences and attitudes. The text includes a chronology
which records Lowell's first, most significant and lasting visual influence,
woman; more specifically, the actress Eleanora Duse in 1902 (Lowell was
27). The classical and natural influences are also explored through an
examination of 1912's A Dome of Many-Coloured Glass and poems such
Crunden, Robert M. American Salons: Encounters with European Modernism,1885-1917.
New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
- Chapter two of Crunden's Salons focuses on Chicago and includes information
regarding the relationships among the poets Harriet Monroe, Ezra Pound
and the irascible Miss Lowell. The Lowell/Pound feud is also addressed
in Book III, where Crunden discusses "London and Ezra Pound."
The influences of painting and music on the poetry of the period is explored.
Flint, F. Cudworth. Amy Lowell. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota
- This pamphlet by then professor of English emeritus Flint of Dartmouth
describes (briefly) Lowell's life and (more thoroughly) her work, including
her support of D. H. Lawrence and her interests in classical, intensely
visual, Asian and anthropological approaches to poetry. Flint's evaluation
of the 1919 volume Pictures of the Floating World and 1921's Legends
gives examples of Lowell's polyphonic prose as "orchestral form"
Drake, William. The First Wave: Women Poets in America, 1915-1945.
New York: Macmillan, 1987.
- Drake traces the rise of women poets from the beginning of the First
World War through the end of the second. In addition to his analysis of
Lowell and her role in the Imagist movement, Drake examines the careers
of Sara Teasdale, Edna St. Vincent Millay and others in light of their
situations as daughters, writers, matriarchs, friends and radicals. Lowell
herself is viewed as an influential and pioneering writer who began a diary
at fifteen, originally to record her need for and appreciation of feminine
relationships, relationships which were to figure prominently in her subsequent
Gould, Jean. Amy: The World of Amy Lowell and The Imagist Movement.
New York: Dodd, Mead and Co., 1975.
- An extensive biography which explores Lowell as a "militant literary
leader" and driving force behind the Imagist movement. Gould delves
into the difficulties Lowell faced as a result of her obesity and lesbian
lifestyle, including Lowell's relationship with Ada Dwyer Russell. The
elements which most strongly influenced Lowell (the beauty of her native
New England, classical music and Russell among them) are illustrated through
the retelling of Lowell's ambitious endeavors.
Jones, Margaret C. Heretics and Hellraisers: Women Contributors to
The Masses, 1911-1917. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1993.
- Jones focuses on those women poets who contributed to the magazine
The Masses. She makes a salient point in reminding us that, for
some of these authors, the work they did for this publication was a significant
departure from their routine, "a diversion from other activities"
(20). For Lowell, who was both a reader and a contributor, The Masses proved
to be a forum for opinion on political topics, including the unemployment
problem, labor issues and exploitation, elements which she had observed,
and, as a woman embracing Modernism, experienced.
Scott, Bonnie Kime. Refiguring Modernism: Volume One, The Women of
1928. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995.
- Bonnie Kime Scott divides her focus on the Modernists into three categories
in this 1995 volume; Beginnings, The Men of 1914 and The Women of 1928.
As Lowell was not a man (despite Ezra Pound's vituperative declarations
to the contrary) and had died by 1925, this text might appear superfluous;
however, Scott's treatment of Lowell and her influence on the Modernist
and Imagist movements provides insight into the gender issues inherent
in the craft. Scott also provides a useful description of the web as metaphor,
particularly appropriate for the online Modernist.
Steinman, Lisa M. Made in America: Science, Technology, and American
Modernist Poets. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987.
- Although this text does not focus on Amy Lowell specifically, its introductory
pages do provide a useful and particularly visual definition and description
of Modernism, its advent and aesthetic. Steinman's emphasis on "poetry's
connection with practical reality" is useful in moving the reader
toward a more solid explanation of what it was the Modernists were hoping
to accomplish by "making it new" (9).
Walker, Cheryl. The Nightingale's Burden: Women Poets and American
Culture before 1900. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1982.
- Cheryl Walker's text focuses on women as poets, the founding of the
tradition of the female poet and its effect on the individual writer. In
her work on Lowell, Walker points out the poet's use of classical influences
(i.e. music, in Lowell's "After Hearing a Waltz by Bartok") and
the visual effects of Lowell's life in New England on her poetry (i.e.
pieces such as "Roads" and "Lilacs").
Watts, Emily Stipes. The Poetry of American Women from 1632-1945.
Austin: University of Texas Press, 1977.
- Emily Stipes Watts views Amy Lowell as an important poet of the twentieth
century, one whose influence reached far beyond the Imagist movement. Watts
has her doubts about Lowell's poetic voice, which she views as tenuous
and searching. Nonetheless, she pronounces Lowell an important voice and
examines complexity of her work through a study of the poet's most dominant
influences: feminism ("Patterns"), female mythological characters
("The Captured Goddess"), the visual arts ("Impressionist
Picture of a Garden") and music ("Violin Sonata by Vincent D'Indy").
This text provides one of the most thorough treatments of Lowell's visual
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