solving tasks, and the imaging of brain processes through fMRI scans, etc. Students will face the challenges and rewards of practicing these techniques and reworking philosophical theories in the service component of the course. Students will participate in veterinary or shelter work to provide needed animal care while studying animal behavior using cognitive ethological methods. We will compare methods for measuring consciousness and intelligence in animals to those used for human beings, and ask questions about the possibility of machine consciousness and the emergent property of group consciousness.
Offered as BIOL 314, COGS 314, PHIL 314 and PHIL 414.

PHIL 415. Selected Topics in Philosophy (3)
Examination of views of a major philosopher or philosophical school, a significant philosophical topic, or a topic that relates to philosophy and other discipline. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101.
Offered as PHIL 315 and PHIL 415.

PHIL 416. African Political Thought (3)
Introduction to select themes in the work of contemporary African philosophers, with special emphasis on political thought. In this course, students will learn something about factors affecting the creation and flow of knowledge and ideas about Africa and discuss the relative importance of the “nation-state” as an idea in Europe, pre-colonial Africa, and postcolonial Africa.
Offered as PHIL 316/416 and ETHS 316/416.

PHIL 420. The Phenomenological Tradition (3)
The background of phenomenology: Descartes, Kant, and Brentano. The epistemological rationale of Husserl’s phenomenology and its ontological implications; the powers and limits of the phenomenological method. Heidegger’s transformation of phenomenology to interpretive ontology of human existence. The development of interpretation theory as the foundation of all human existence. The development of interpretation theory as the foundation of all human sciences in Gadamer and Ricoeur. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101.
Offered as PHIL 320 and PHIL 420.

PHIL 425. Philosophy of Feminism (3)
Dimensions of gender difference. Definition of feminism. Critical examination of feminist critiques of culture, including especially politics, ideology, epistemology, ethics, and psychology. Readings from traditional and contemporary sources. Offered as PHIL 325 and PHIL 425 and WGST 325.

PHIL 430. Topics in Ethics (3)
Examination of views in ethics of a major philosopher or philosophical school, a significant philosophical topic in ethics, or a topic that relates ethics to philosophy and another discipline. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101, PHIL 102, or PHIL 205.
Offered as PHIL 330 and PHIL 430.

PHIL 433. Philosophy of Religion (3)
Topics include: classical and contemporary arguments for God’s existence; divine foreknowledge and human freedom; the problem of evil and theodicy; nature and significance of religious experience; mysticism; varieties of religious metaphysics; knowledge, belief and faith; nature of religious discourse. Readings from traditional and contemporary sources. Recommended preparation for PHIL 433 and RLGN 433: PHIL 101 or RLGN 102.
Offered as PHIL 333, RLGN 333, PHIL 433, and RLGN 433.

PHIL 434. Political and Social Philosophy (3)
Justification of social institutions, primarily political ones. Such distinctions as that between de facto and legitimate authority; analysis of criteria for evaluation, such as social justice and equality; inquiry into theories of justification of the state; theory of democratic government and its alternatives. Readings from classical and contemporary sources. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101.
Offered as PHIL 334, POSC 354, PHIL 434, and POSC 454.

PHIL 435. Philosophy of Law (3)
This is an examination of the general nature of law, the broad concerns of jurisprudence, the study of comparative law, and many of the issues raised in the literature of legal philosophy. Students will examine the principles of legal positivism, mitigated natural law, and rights theory. Selected readings and cases will illustrate these theories, which will also be examined in the context of rule selection by new governments in developing or revolutionary societies. The course also looks at the general nature of legal systems: how politics, morality, and individual views of justice and rights affect particular court cases and the course and development of law generally. Topics will include abortion, obscenity and sin, civil disobedience, affirmative action, surrogatehood, and the death penalty. This is unlike any other of the legal theory or jurisprudence courses, and those who have sampled legal theory elsewhere in a different form are welcome and encouraged to enroll. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101.
Offered as LAWS 353, PHIL 335, and PHIL 435.

PHIL 445. Epistemology and Metaphysics (3)
Traditional problems of epistemology, such as definition of knowledge, justification of belief, nature of evidence and foundationalism, skepticism, the a priori, and the role of sense perception in knowledge. Metaphysical presuppositions and implications of epistemological views. Forms of realism and anti-realism. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101.
Offered as PHIL 345 and PHIL 445.

PHIL 455. 19th and Early 20th Century Philosophy (3)
History of philosophy after Kant up to and including logical empiricism. Interpretation and comparison of important philosophers and philosophical schools of the period in terms of common methods, problems, themes, doctrines, and ideologies. Emphasis on Schopenhauer, Hegel, Kierkegaard, Marx, and Nietzsche. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101.
Offered as PHIL 355 and PHIL 455.

PHIL 456. Comparative Philosophy (3)
Comparison of significant philosophers or philosophical schools of non-Western traditions with Western counterparts on metaphysical, epistemological, ethical, aesthetic, and sociopolitical theoretic issues. The non-Western traditions to be considered include the Indian and the Far Eastern, but not exclusively. Discussion, in context, of the problems of comparative hermeneutics. Readings will include original sources in English translation. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101.

PHIL 465. Philosophy of Mind (3)
Traditional problems such as the relation of mind and body, knowledge of other minds, free will and determination, and nature of psychological explanation. Analysis of chief theories of mind. Analysis of mental concepts such as intention, action, decision, emotion, and will. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101.
Offered as PHIL 365 and PHIL 465.

PHIL 467. Topics in Evolutionary Biology (3)
The focus for this course on a special topic of interest in evolutionary biology will vary from one offering to the next. Examples of possible topics include theories of speciation, the evolution of language, the evolution of sex, evolution and biodiversity, molecular evolution. ANAT/ANTH/GEOL/PHIL 467/BIOL 468 will require a longer, more sophisticated term paper, and additional class presentation.
Offered as ANTH 367, BIOL 368, GEOL 367, PHIL 367, ANAT 467, ANTH 467, BIOL 468, GEOL 467, and PHIL 467.

PHIL 470. Philosophy and Literature (3)
Affinities and tensions between philosophy and literature and issues that arise in their interface. Topics include: philosophical use of literary devices; literary use of philosophical ideas; literary philosophy and philosophical literature; and hermeneutics of literature and philosophy. Readings in philosophy and literature from both traditional and contemporary sources. Team-taught by faculty of the philosophy and literature departments. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101.

PHIL 494. Seminar in Evolutionary Biology (3)
This seminar investigates 20th-century evolutionary theory, especially the Modern Evolutionary synthesis and subsequent expansions of and challenges to that synthesis. The course encompasses the multidisciplinary nature of the science of evolution, demonstrating how disciplinary background influences practitioners’ conceptualizations of pattern and process. This course emphasizes practical writing and research skills, including formulation of testable theses, grant proposal techniques, and the implementation of original research using the facilities on campus and at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History.
Offered as ANTH 394, BIOL 394, GEOL 394, HSTY 394, PHIL 394, ANTH 494, BIOL 494, GEOL 494, HSTY 494, and PHIL 494.

PHIL 600. Tutorial (1–18)

PHIL 651. Thesis M.A. (1–6)

PHIL 700. Advanced Tutorial and Dissertation (1–18)
For Ph.D. candidates in fields related to philosophy.