Novel soft robotic systems inspired by or based on origami design.Read More
A novel swarm microrobotic platform. Highly modular, rechargeable, and capable of sensing and communicating with each other wirelessly.Read More
A novel procedural and methodological approach for assessing cognitive and fine-motor skills through tangible interactive games.Read More
A sociable robot for interacting and playing with persons with autism spectrum disorders. Philos is being developed for assisting clinicians and caregivers in various types of social and behavioral therapies.Read More
Welcome to Distributed Intelligence and Robotics Lab at Case Western Reserve University. Our research focuses on sensor-networked systems, modular robotics, and sociable robots with emphasis on biomedical and healthcare applications. Click here for recent news and announcements.
This project focuses on developing and evaluating a novel procedural and methodological approach, called "TaG-Games", for play-based assessment of an individual’s cognitive, fine motor, and working memory skills via tangible interactive games.
Sponsor: NSFRead More
“Philos” means “friend” in Greek. We aim to develop a personalizable robot that can socially interact with humans and monitor real-time health and behavioral data. Watch the above video for Philos featured on WVIZ/PBS Ideastream on December 19, 2014.
Sponsor: CTSCRead More
We are investigating design methodology, distributed algorithms, and sensor integration for distributed robotic systems. Current research focuses on developing hardware platforms and sensing and communication algorithms for swarm intelligent systems.Read More
[DIRL at 2015 Research ShowCASE!] Our OrigamiBots, Philos, InchBots, CubebBots, and SIG-Blocks/TAG-Games were presented at this year's Research ShowCASE held on April 17, 2015. Donghwa, Chris, and Sahil presented their posters: "OrigamiBot: Origami Robots for Locomotion and Aanipulation" and "Socio-Biosensor: Wearable Sensors for Measuring Social Interaction." Please see our publications for related research papers. For more pictures, please click below.
[OrigamiBot-I: A Thread-Actuated Origami Robot for Manipulation and Locomotion] OrigamiBot-I is a threadactuated origami robot that demonstrates a physical application of an origami design for robotic manipulation and locomotion. The selected design can generate twisting and bending motions by pulling, pushing, or torsional force applied to the origami structure. Thread-based actuation also enables various shapes and motions by using different numbers of threads and routing them through different paths. The kinematics for each twisting and bending motions based on estimated parameters is derived. To evaluate potential use of origami for real-world applications and identify structural weaknesses, preliminary stiffness and durability testing was conducted. For physical demonstrations of robotic manipulation and locomotion, OrigamiBot-I was equipped with four independently-routed threads, where each thread is controlled by a geared DC motor. The robot successfully demonstrated its simple manipulation and locomotion capabilities. This work was presented at IROS 2014. You can WATCH VIDEO here.
[MEDIA] The OrigamiBot-I video is also featured in an IEEE Spectrum article, "Video Friday IROS 2014," as one of their 10 favorite videos.
[InchBot: A Novel Swarm Microrobotic Platform] Collective behavior in swarm robotics explores various scenarios involving many robots communicating, sensing, and running simultaneously. This strategy aims to reduce the time and energy required and to improve the efficiency of completing complex tasks which are typically difficult to accomplish individually. This paper presents InchBot, a novel swarm microrobotic platform, which is highly modular, rechargeable, and capable of sensing and communicating with each other wirelessly. InchBot features a new stackable hardware structure allowing customization in the embedded sensors and a novel flexible wheel design suitable for omnidirectional motions. A detailed analysis on the deformation characteristics of the flexible spoke wheels due to centrifugal force was performed using the finite element method. Preliminary experiments demonstrated the utility of flexible spoke wheels for generating forward, diagonal, and turning motions. This work was presented at IROS 2013. You can WATCH VIDEO here. [Read More]
[NAKFI Futures Grant: June 2016] An interdisciplinary research team from the last year's National Academies Keck Futures Initiative Conference won a $100K grant for a project, entitled "Fostering emphathy and improving focus through the Groove Enhancement Machine (GEM)." The team includes Petr Janata (PI), Professor of Pscyhology at UC Davis, Jonathan Berger, Professor of Music at Stanford University, Kiju Lee, Assistant Professor in Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Case Western Reserve University, Scott Auerbach, Professor of Chemistry at UMass Amhurst, and André Thomas at Texas A&M University.
[NSF GOALI: May 2016] The DIRL received a supplement grant from NSF to test our TAG-Games on older adults in collaboration with Breckenridge Village, a local continuing care retirement community. Co-investigators include Elizabeth Madigan, Professor at Nursing and Grover Gilmore, Dean of Applied Social Sciences and Professor of Psychological Sciences.
[NAKFI 2015: November 2015] Prof. Lee was invited to attend the National Academies Keck Futures Initiative Conference which took place at the Arnold and Mabel Beckmen Center in Irvine, CA, on November 12-14.
[IMECE 2015: November 2015] Prof. Lee attended International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition 2015 which took place in Houston, TX. She presented the paper, "An Amphibious Robot with Reconfigurable Origami Wheels for Locomotion in Dynamic Environment," co-authored with Donghwa Jeong.
[DIRL at Innovation Summit at CWRU: October 2015] Our lab participated in the CWRU's Innovation Station Exhibits at Innovation Summit on October 26, 2015.
[Congratulations] Donghwa (Dr. Jeong, after all) successfully completed his doctoral degree requirements and left for Korea to lead his own company. Congratulations and we wish you all the best for continuing success in your business!
[VA APT Center: Garverick Innovation Incentive Program] Prof. Lee recieved the Garverick Innovation Incentive grant from the Applied Platform Technology (APT) Center at the Cleveland VA Medical Center. This project aims to develop and clinically evaluate wearable socio-biosensors for older veterans living in a community living center.
[National Science Foundation, Award No.: 1445012, 2014-2016] This PFI: AIR Technology Translation project focuses on translating integrated sensors and wireless communication technology to fill the need for cognitive assessment and rehabilitation of veterans with mild traumatic brain injuries (TBI). The novel Sensor Integrated Geometric (SIG)-Blocks technology enables fully autonomous and remote administration of the cognitive assessment and training programs that will reduce the cost and broaden accessibility to rehabilitation opportunities. Improved quality and quantity of measurable data and the dynamic nature of this technology-based approach will also lead to improved rehabilitation outcomes. This project will result in a prototype of a fully functioning hardware platform (SIG-Blocks) and user-friendly game software for personalized cognitive assessment and training. The SIG-Blocks technology has the following unique features: fully automated and remote (online) administration of the assessment and training games, dynamic and personalized game items, and improved quality and quantity of measureable data. These features will potentially improve the accuracy of assessment and clinical effectiveness of rehabilitation. Further, reduced cost and possible in-home training will broaden rehabilitation opportunities for TBI patients when compared to the existing cognitive assessment and training instruments in this market space.
Team: Kiju Lee (PI), Mike Allan (Co-PI, Technology Transfer Office, CWRU), Ronald Riechers (Co-I, Cleveland VA Hospital), and Sara Walters-BugBee (Co-I, Cleveland VA Hospital).
[CTSC Annual Pilot Grant, 2012-2013] Our sociable robotics project ("Philos") has been awarded the CTSC (Clinical and Translational Science Collaborative) Annual Pilot Grant (June 2012 - May 2013). This project focuses on upgrading Philos for behavioral intervention of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Philos is being designed to engage children in various types of vision-, touch-, and auditory-based interactions and collect quantitative behavioral data. Customization of the technology will include user-defined initial settings based on the user’s health status and updating of the robot’s behavior based on the interaction history. The proposed technology will be tested on children with ASD and normally developing children at the ages between 3 to 10 for preliminary evaluation. The resaerch team involves Kiju Lee (PI) and Thomas Frazier (Co-I, Research Director of Center for Autism at Cleveland Clinic). [Last updated on 7/26/2012]
[National Science Foundation, 2011-2014] Our TaG-Games project has been recently funded by the National Science Foundation, under the REESE (Research and Evaluation in Engineering and Science Education) program (NSF Award No. 1109270). This project focuses on developing sensor-enabled geometric blocks for assessming cognitive problem-solving, working memory, and fine-motor skills in young children as early indications of their general learning skills. Reprogrammable blocks with embedded sensors and user feedback mechanisms will be developed in combination with a graphical user interface for assessment, education, and entertainment purposes. The developed technology will be tested on university students (age: 18-30) for preliminary evaluation and then young children (age: 4-6). The team involves Kiju Lee (PI), Elizabeth Short (Co-I, Psychology) and Frank Merat (Co-I, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science). Graduate research assistants are Donghwa Jeong (Ph. D. Candidate, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering), Beatrice Floyd (MSE Candidate, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering), and Rachael Cooper (Ph.D. Candidate, Psychology). [Last updated on 11/20/2011]
This project focuses on developing and evaluating a novel procedural and methodological approach (called TaG-Games) for play-based assessment of an individual’s cognitive, motor control, and learning skills.
TaG-Games employs a set of sensor-integrated geometric blocks (SIG-Blocks) for data collection and a graphical user interface (GUI) for administering the test and monitoring/analyzing the measured data. TaG-Game enables remote and real-time monitoring of a player’s performance and behavior by wireless communication established between the blocks and the host computer through the user interface.
It will allow multiple, objective, and continuous assessments, thereby providing great potential as a routine screening tool, especially for continuously monitoring of cognitive problem-solving and processing skills, fine motor proficiency, and working memory in various domestic and professional environments. Furthermore, the test difficulty can be easily adjusted by changing the number or geometric shapes/colors of the blocks employed. We are also investigating computational measures of geometric game complexity based on an information-theoretic approach.
For preliminary evaluation, three types of games, Assembly, Shape Matching, and Sequence Memory, have been developed and currently being tested through a small-scale human subject study.
Geometric Games for Assessing Cognitive, Working Memory, and Motor Control Skills by B. Floyd, D. Jeong, and K. Lee (2012)
SmartBall: Toward Interactive Play for Infants by D. Jeong, B. Floyd, and K. Lee (2012)
TaG-Games: Tangible Geometric Games for Assessing Cognitive Problem-Solving Skills and Fine Motor Proficiency by D. Jeong, E. Kerci and K. Lee (2010)
Sensor-Integrated Geometric Blocks: Towards Interactive Play-Based Assessment of Young Children by D. Jeong, E. Kerci and K. Lee (2010)
WORK IN PROGRESS
Hardware Development: The next generation of SIG-Blocks is currently being developed in order to address the technical problems identified in our current prototype, improve esthetic design, and enable reprogrammable geometric patterns and sensory feedback mechanism.
Software Improvements and Game Development: We are developing various types of fun games with enhanced graphics and visual/auditory stimuli.
PI: Kiju Lee
Collaborators: Sara Heinz, Ronald Riechers, Mike Allan, Elizabeth Short, and Frank Merat
Research Assitants: Tao Liu
Previous Students: Donghwa Jeong (PhD 2015), Beatrice Floyd (MS 2012), Rachael Cooper, Endri Kerci (BSE 2011)
We are currently conducting a human subject study for testing our technology and designed game items. For CWRU students (ages 18 - 30) who are interested in participaing in this study, please send us an email. Each participant will be compensated by a $10 gift card. For general inquires about the project, please contact Prof. Lee.
This project focuses on developing a personalizable robot with integrated wireless health monitoring capability. The overall goal of this research project is to develop a reprogrammable robotic platform that can socially interact with humans and monitor real-time health data by enabling wireless communication between the robot and wearable sensor devices worn by individuals who require continuous monitoring and special care, such as the elderly or persons with disabilities. The proposed robotic system is suitable for both single user and multiple users.
Philos currently has a total of seven degrees of freedom in its motion. Each arm has two degrees of rotational freedom and the head also has two degrees of freedom (pan and tilt). These structures are actuated by servo motors, which are controlled by half-duplex serial communication with the microcontroller. In addition, Philos’s upper body is given one degree of translational freedom generated by two electric linear actuators controlled using an H-bridge integrated circuit (IC). Philos is able to express various behavioral responses that are either friendly or unfriendly. It is also detects and tracks human faces in order to indicate its interest in the person currently engaged in social interaction. It can also recognize and distinguish each individual it has interacted with previously.
Adaptive Face Recognition for Low-Cost, Embedded Human-Robot Interaction by Y. Zhang, K. Hornfeck and K. Lee (2012)
Philos: A Sociable Robot for Human Robot Interactions and Wireless health Monitoring" (Abstract) by K. Hornfeck, Y. Zhang and K. Lee (2012)
Towards Social-Therapeutic Robots: How to Strategically Implement a Robot for Social Group Therapy? by K. Lee, G. Kaloutsakis and J. Couch (2009)
WORK IN PROGRESS
Expressive Robot Face Design: We are redesigning Philos's head to enable various facial expressions. The picture on the left shows the current prototype designed by Eric Dymerski and modified by Raymond Krajci.
Low-Cost, Real-Time Algorithms for Face Detection, Tracking and Recognition: We are also investigating image processing algorithms for embedded systems with limited hardware capabilities, such as Philos.
Developing Behavioral Algorithms: A behavioral framework for sociable robotic systems is being studied so that a robot can be customized to exhibit a variety of behavioral characteristics, as well as achieve realistic and dynamic interaction.
PI: Kiju Lee
Research Assistants: Tao Liu, Brian Weingarth, Daniel Hayosh, and Tingting Xue
Previous Members: Kenneth Hornfeck (MSE 2011), Yan Zhang (MSE 2011), Sptephanie Cockrell (Summer 2011), Raymond Krajci (Summer 2011), and Eric Dymerski (Spring 2011-Senior Design Project)
Subtopics of this project are prefectly suitable for Senior Projects (e.g., EMAE 398) for engineering undergraduates who are interested in robotics. Interested students please contact Prof. Lee.
[InchBot: A Novel Swarm Microrobotic Platform] Collective behavior in swarm robotics explores various scenarios involving many robots communicating, sensing, and running simultaneously. This strategy aims to reduce the time and energy required and to improve the efficiency of completing complex tasks which are typically difficult to accomplish individually. This paper presents InchBot, a novel swarm microrobotic platform, which is highly modular, rechargeable, and capable of sensing and communicating with each other wirelessly.
InchBot features a new stackable hardware structure allowing customization in the embedded sensors and a novel flexible wheel design suitable for omnidirectional motions. A detailed analysis on the deformation characteristics of the flexible spoke wheels due to centrifugal force was performed using the finite element method. Preliminary experiments demonstrated the utility of flexible spoke wheels for generating forward, diagonal, and turning motions. Donghwa Jeong, Ph.D. Candidate, will present his work on InchBot at IROS 2013, which will be held in November 2013, Tokyo, Japan.
D. Jeong and K. Lee, "InchBot: A Novel Microrobotic Platform," accepted for publication, IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Robots and Systems (IROS 2013), November 2013, Tokyo, Japan.
PI: Kiju Lee
Research Assistants: Yang Liu and Ryan Seballos
Previous Students: Donghwa Jeong
LEARN stands for Light-weight, Expandable, Autonomous Robot for Navigation. A team of undergraduate students, Michael Malguarnera and John Horton, developed this robotic platform as well as a user manual and demo algorithms as their senior design project during the spring 2010 semester. This robot will be continuously used for undergraduate educational projects to provide students hands-on experience.
Future projects may include: 1) camera-based autonomous navigation, 2) autonomous indoor air monitoring and mapping, and 3) new user interface development.
PI: Kiju Lee
Previous Members: Michael Malguarnera (BSE 2010) and John Horton (BSE 2010)
If you are interested in exploring LEARN for your senior design or independant research project, please contact Prof. Lee. Two or three students will be recruited to work on this project each semester in our lab.
SELF-REPLICATING ROBOTIC SYSTEMS
Previous research has demonstrated the concept of robotic self-replicationg based on heterogeneous modules with simple electronic components. This project was to develop robotic systems that could duplicate in structured environments with various complexity. The current status of this research is based on modular systems where an initial functional robot consisting of several subsystems (modules) replicates by collecting unassembled parts. The amount of information required for the process can be shifted into the environment where the replication process takes place, and in this case, we say the environment is structured.
The picture on the right is an example of a structured environment. The robot trajectory is determined by the tracks and the subsystems are located relative to the known landmarks with some positional and rotational tolerances. Hence, a structured environment holds important information about the subsystems and may replace some functionality of the robot.
O(N) FORWARD DYNAMICS ALGORITHMS FOR SERIAL CHAINS
This project was to develop a new method on O(n) mass matrix inversion for polymer chains and serial manipulators based on Fixman's method. In 1974, Prof. M. Fixman presented an efficient algorithm computing the mass metric determinant tensor for polymer chains with point masses at each rotational joint. By partitioning a generalized coordinates into soft (variables defining motions) and hard (constrained variables) variables, the inversed mass matrix of an unconstrained system has a form of a block matrix, where each of four blocks becomes sparse and band-limited.
Using these blocks instead of directly inverting the generalized mass matrix of the constrained system, the inverse of the constrained mass matrix can be computed efficiently. The algorithm was further extended for the manipulators consisting of rigid bodies and polymer chains containing side chains using Lie-theoretic approach.
D. Jeong and K. Lee, "Design and Analysis of an Origami-Based Three-Finger Manipulator" (under review)
Y. Liu and K. Lee, "RSS-based Communication and Localization for Multi-robot Systems: Algorithms, Simulations, and Hardware Implementation" (in preparation)
K. Lee, D. Jeong, R. C. Schindler, L. E. Hlavaty, S. L. Gross, and E. J. Short, "TAG-Games for Cognitive Assessment of Young Children: Design and Preliminary Evaluation" (in preparation)
K. Lee, D. Jeong, R. C. Shinder, and E. J. Short, "SIG-Blocks: Tangible Game Technology for Automated Cognitive Assessment," Computers in Human Behavior, 2016 (in press) DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2016.08.023
D. Jeong and K. Lee, “iSIG-Blocks: Interactive Creation Blocks for Tangible Geometric Games,” IEEE Transaction on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 61, Issue 4, pp. 420-428, November 2015. DOI: 10.1109/TCE.2015.7389795.
B. Floyd and K. Lee, “Implementation of Vision-based Object Tracking Algorithms for Motor Skill Assessments,” International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications. Vol. 6, Issue 6. DOI: 10.14569/IJACSA.2015.060639.
D. Jeong and K. Lee, “An Amphibious Robot with Reconfigurable Origami Wheels for Locomotion in Dynamic Environment,” accepted for International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, Houston, TX, November13-19, 2015.
D. Jeong and K. Lee, "Distributed Sensing and Communication Algorithms for Homogeneous Swarm Robots," International Symposium on Distributed Autonomous Robotic Systems, November 2014, Daegeon, Korea.
K. Lee and D. Jeong, "Memorix: A Tangible Memory Game using iSIG-Blocks," IEEE Games, Entertainment, and Media Conference, October 2014, Toronto, Canada.
E. VenderHoff, D. Jeong, and K. Lee, "OrigamiBot-I: A Thread-Actuated Origami Robot for Manipulation and Locomotion" in the Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2014), Chicago, IL, USA, September 2014.
C. Puehn, T. Liu, Y. Feng, K. Hornfeck and K. Lee, "Design of a Low-Cost Social Robot: Towards Personalized Human-Robot Interaction," International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Crete, Greece, June, 2014. Also published in Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, Aging and Assistive Environments, Lecture Notes in Computer Science Volume 8515, 2014, pp 704-713
D. Jeong and K. Lee, "Dispersion and Line Formation in Artificial Swarm Intelligence," Collective Intelligence 2014, MIT, June, 2014.
G. Kaloutsakis, A. Reimer, D. Jeong, and K. Lee, "Design and Evaluation of a Multi-Sensor Unit for Measuring Physiological Stressors of Medical Transport," 2013 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, November 2013, San Diego, US.
D. Jeong and K. Lee, "InchBot: A Novel Microrobotic Platform,"IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Robots and Systems (IROS 2013), November 2013, Tokyo, Japan.
F. Bellotti, B. Kapralos, K. Lee, P. Moreno-Ger, and R. Berta, "Assessment in and of Serious Games: An Overview," (Review Article) Advances in Human-Computer Interaction (2013), Article ID 136864.
D. Jeong and K. Lee, "Directional RSS-Based Localization of Multi-Robot Applications," 12th WSEAS International Conference on Signal Processing, Robotics, and Automation, Cambridge, UK, February 2013.
Y. Zhang, K. Hornfeck and K. Lee, "Adaptive Face Recognition for Low-Cost, Embedded Human-Robot Interaction," The 12th International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems, June 26-29, 2012, Jeju Island, Korea. Also available at Intelligence Autonomous Systems 12, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing (2013), 193: 863-872.
K. Hornfeck, Y. Zhang and K. Lee, "Philos: A Sociable Robot for Human Robot Interactions and Wireless health Monitoring," The 27th Symposium on Applied Computing (SAC 2012), Riva del Garda, Italy, Mar. 26-30, 2012 (Extended Abstract)
D. Jeong, B. Floyd, and K. Lee, " SmartBall: Toward Interactive Play for Infants," TEI'12: Sixth International Conference on Tangible, Embedded, and Embodied Interaction. Feb 19-22 2012, Kingston, ON, Canada.
B. Floyd, D. Jeong, and K. Lee, " Geometric Games for Assessing Cognitive, Working Memory, and Motor Control Skills," TEI'12: Sixth International Conference on Tangible, Embedded, and Embodied Interaction. Feb 19-22 2012, Kingston, ON, Canada.
K. Lee, D. Jeong, B. Floyd, R. Cooper and E. Short, "Games for Automated Assessments of Cognitive and Fine-Motor Skills: Design and Preliminary Evaluation," presented at the 5th Annual International Conference on Psychology, 30-31 May & 1-2 June, 2011 (Abstract only).
D. Jeong and K. Lee, "Quantitative Analysis of Muscle Activations and Real-time Simulations for Two Pitching Motions, Overhand Pitching and Sidearm Pitching," 2011 Annual Meeting of Biomedical Engineering Society (BMES 2011), Hartford, Connecticut, Oct. 2011.
D. Jeong, E. Kerci and K. Lee, "TaG-Games: Tangible Geometric Games for Assessing Cognitive Problem-Solving Skills and Fine Motor Proficiency," IEEE International Conference on Multisensor Fusion and Integration, Salt Lake City, Utah, September 5-7, 2010, pp. 32-37.
K. Lee and G. S. Chirikjian, "An Autonomous Robot that Duplicates Itself from Low-Complexity Components," IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA 2010), Anchorage, Alaska, May 3-8, 2010.
D. Jeong, E. Kerci and K. Lee, "Sensor-Integrated Geometric Blocks: Towards Interactive Play-Based Assessment of Young Children," International Workshop on Interactive Systems in Healthcare (CHI-WISH 2010), Atlanta, GA, April 10-11, 2010.
K. Lee, G. Kaloutsakis and J. Couch, "Towards Social-Therapeutic Robots: How to Strategically Implement a Robot for Social Group Therapy?," IEEE International Symposium on Computational Intelligence in Robotics and Automation (CIRA 2009), Daejeon, Korea, Dec. 2009.
K. Lee, M. Moses and G. S. Chirikjian, "Robotic Self-Replication in Partially Structured Environments: Physical Demonstrations and Complexity Measures," International Journal of Robotics Research, Vol. 27, Issue 3-4, pp. 387-401, March 2008.
K. Lee and G. S. Chirikjian, "Robotic Self-Replication from Low-Complexity Parts," IEEE Robotic and Automation Magazine, Vol. 14, Issue 4, pp. 34-43, December 2007.
K. Lee and G. S. Chirikjian, "Measures of Efficiency and Complexity for Self-Replicating Robotic Systems," International Conference on Advanced Robotics, Jeju, Korea, Aug. 21-24, 2007.
S. Eno, L. Mace, J. Liu, B. Benson, K. Raman, K. Lee, M. Moses, G.S. Chirikjian, "Robotic Self-Replication in a Structured Environment without Computer Control," IEEE International Symposium on Computational Intelligence in Robotics and Automation, Jacksonville, FL, Jun. 20-23, 2007.
A. Liu, M. Sterling, D. Kim, A. Pierpont, A. Schlothauer, M. Moses, K. Lee, G. S. Chirikjian, "A Memoryless Robot that Assembles Seven Subsystems to Copy Itself," IEEE International Symposium on Assembly and Manufacturing, Ann Arbor, Michigan, Jul. 22-25, 2007.
K. Lee, Y. Wang and G. S. Chirikjian, "O(n) Mass Matrix Inversion for Serial Manipulators and Polypeptide Chains using Lie derivatives," Robotica, Vol. 25, Issue 6, pp.739-750, November 2007.
K. Lee, M. Moses and M. Kutzer, "Self-Replicating Robots for Space Exploration," AIAA 2nd Space Exploration Conference, Houston, TX, 4-6, Dec. 2006 (poster exhibition).
K. Lee and G. S. Chirikjian, "An Autonomous Self-Replicating Robot in a Partially Structured Environment," AIAA Region I YPSE-06, JHU, APL, Laurel, MD, 10-11, Nov. 2006 (abstract).
K. Lee, M. Moses, G. S. Chirikjian, "Robotic Self-Replication in Structured and Adaptable Environments," Proceedings of Robotics: Science and Systems Workshop on Self-reconfigurable Modular Robots (Extended Abstract), Philadelphia, Aug. 2006.
K. Lee and G. S. Chirikjian, "A New Perspective on O(N) Mass-Matrix Inversion for Serial Revolute Manipulators," IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Barcelona, Spain, Apr. 2005.
K. Lee and G. S. Chirikjian, "O(n) Inversion of Mass-Matrix for Hyper-Redundant Manipulators and Polymer Chains," MUSME 2005, Uberlandia, Brazil, Mar. 2005.
W. Park, D. Albright, C. Addleston, W.K. Won, K. Lee, G.S. Chirikjian, "Robotic Self-Repair in a Semi-Structured Environment," Robosphere 2004, NASA Ames, CA, Nov. 2004.