††††††††††† ††††††††††† http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1060_web.pdf
††††††††††† A radioactive waste site was entered by local individuals, and a radioactive source was removed.††††††††††††††††††††††
††††††††††† Sealed industrial radiation sources were abandoned by a previous owner and left to later expose surrounding individuals.
††††††††††† ††††††††††† http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1097_web.pdf
††††††††††† A teletherapy source was broken down and sold as scrap metal.†††††††††† ††††††††††† http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1102_web.pdf
††††††††††† A welder picked up an industrial radiography source and placed it in a pantís pocket for several hours.
††††††††††† A teletherapy head was dismantled, and parts were left in an insecure storage location.† Parts were later sold as scrap metal.
††††††††††† ††††††††††† http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1124_web.pdf
††††††††††† Accidental overexposure occurred as the resulted of improperly calibrated radiotherapy.
††††††††††† ††††††††††† http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1180_web.pdf
††††††††††† An industrial source was transported by way of a fully
loaded passenger bus for an eight hour trip from
††††††††††† ††††††††††† http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1199_web.pdf
Overview of Radiation Emergencies and Nuclear Concerns:
††††††††††† While many incidents and emergencies have been observed
in recent decades, the field of radiation preparedness is still incipient,
evolving, and largely untested.† Although
evidence of improved measures may exist since cases such as the scare of
nuclear meltdown in
In terms of large scale
radiation events, nuclear war and terrorism generally hold a spot light
compared to nuclear power plant or reactor meltdown.† Many simulation and preparedness models
utilize a bomb of comparable size to the weapon dropped on
††††††††††† Weapons held today by either the
A large scale radiation emergency or a nuclear disaster would be likely to reflect fundamental features of society and culture, including interpersonal communication, relationships, and core values through the intensity of impact and stress of recovery (Oliver-Smith, 2002).† The ability to cope, recognize vulnerability, and assist recovery in emergencies of radioactive nature may be tools of invaluable importance for the management of public health in the modern world.† Both response and prevention are concepts that should be molded to the features of a society most germane to its fundamental well being and continued self-sufficiency.
††††††††††††††† Internet Resources and Associated Publications:
Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFFRI)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Database of Radiological Incidents and Related Events (compiled by R. Johnston, updated 5 Jan. 2005)
Emergency Management Research Institute (EMRI)
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA, within DHS)
International Atomic Energy Agency
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP)
Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (REAC/TS division)
World Health Organization
Association of Physicists in Medicine Report No. 53 (1995). Radiation Information for Hospital
Baum, A. (1987). Toxins, Technology, and
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Hanson (1964). Introduction to
G. V. (2002). Popular Media Reframing of Man-Made Disasters: A Cautionary Tale.
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Anthropology of Disaster.
Golding, D; Kasperson, J; Kasperson, R;
Goble, R; Seley, J; Thompson, G; Wolf, C (1992).† Managing
R. J. (1969). Emergency and Disaster Planning.
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Benger, J. (2004). Response to Radiation Incidents and Radionuclear Threats: Medical Treatment Should Be Given Only When Safe To Do So. British Medical Journal, 328, 1074.
I.D., Ball M., and Falen S.† (1979). A
Dosage Response Curve for the
Buscombe, J.R. (2004).† Response to radiation incidents and radionuclear threats: other threats may be more serious.† British Medical Journal. May 1; 328(7447):1074
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Gofin, R. (2005). Preparedness and Response to Terrorism: A Framework for Public Health Action. European Journal of Public Health, 15(1), 100-104.
Holdstock, D., Waterston, E. (2004). Response to Radiation Incident and Radionuclear Threats: Renunciation of Nuclear Weapons Could Lesson the Threat. British Medical Journal, 328, 1074.
F. A., Jr., Voelz, G. L. (2002). Major Radiation Exposure - What to Expect and
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Smith, R. (2004). "Doctor, Come Quickly.† There's Been a Nuclear Incident". British Medical Journal, 328, 7439.
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