††††††††††† ††††††††††† http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1060_web.pdf

4.†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Tammiku, Estonia (1994)

††††††††††† A radioactive waste site was entered by local individuals, and a radioactive source was removed.††††††††††††††††††††††

††††††††††††††††††††††† http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1053_web.pdf

5.†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Lilo, Georgia (1997)

††††††††††† Sealed industrial radiation sources were abandoned by a previous owner and left to later expose surrounding individuals.

††††††††††† ††††††††††† http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1097_web.pdf

6.†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Istanbul, Turkey (1998)

††††††††††† A teletherapy source was broken down and sold as scrap metal.†††††††††† ††††††††††† http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1102_web.pdf

7.†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Yanango, Peru (1999)

††††††††††† A welder picked up an industrial radiography source and placed it in a pantís pocket for several hours.

††††††††††††††††††††††† http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1101_web.pdf

8.†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Samut Prakarn, Thailand (2000)

††††††††††† A teletherapy head was dismantled, and parts were left in an insecure storage location.Parts were later sold as scrap metal.

††††††††††† ††††††††††† http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1124_web.pdf

9.†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Bialystok, Poland (2001)

††††††††††† Accidental overexposure occurred as the resulted of improperly calibrated radiotherapy.

††††††††††† ††††††††††† http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1180_web.pdf

10.†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Cochabamba, Bolivia (2002)

††††††††††† An industrial source was transported by way of a fully loaded passenger bus for an eight hour trip from Cochabamba to La Paz.

††††††††††† ††††††††††† http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1199_web.pdf


Overview of Radiation Emergencies and Nuclear Concerns:

††††††††††† While many incidents and emergencies have been observed in recent decades, the field of radiation preparedness is still incipient, evolving, and largely untested.Although evidence of improved measures may exist since cases such as the scare of nuclear meltdown in Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania, 1979, the state of modern preparedness in relation to modern technologies of communication, surveillance, and healthcare delivery is predominantly unknown.Incentives for preparation may be currently challenged by infrequent activity on a massive scale.Furthermore, integration of services for a large scale event remains a variable as individual fields become more and more specialized.

In terms of large scale radiation events, nuclear war and terrorism generally hold a spot light compared to nuclear power plant or reactor meltdown.Many simulation and preparedness models utilize a bomb of comparable size to the weapon dropped on Hiroshima, judging that a low yield weapon may be the most likely nuclear weapon for terrorist attainment.In the event of any nuclear war, yields of nuclear weapons would likely be much greater.

††††††††††† Weapons held today by either the U.S. or Russia could be, at the very least, three or four thousand times more destructive than the weapon dropped in Hiroshima (NAS, 1997).Although a 50 Mt bomb may be the largest weapon officially reported to have been constructed, weapons of common prevalence are typically in the range of 300 to 475 kt, of which the U.S. has some 13,000 and Russia has about 11,000.The Cold War may have seen accumulations as high as 60,000 to 80,000 (NAS, 1997).China, England, and France may each possess 1% or 2% the number of weapons currently found in the U.S. or Russia.Warheads are typically contained in missiles which combine eight to ten warheads.


Final Conclusion:

A large scale radiation emergency or a nuclear disaster would be likely to reflect fundamental features of society and culture, including interpersonal communication, relationships, and core values through the intensity of impact and stress of recovery (Oliver-Smith, 2002).The ability to cope, recognize vulnerability, and assist recovery in emergencies of radioactive nature may be tools of invaluable importance for the management of public health in the modern world.Both response and prevention are concepts that should be molded to the features of a society most germane to its fundamental well being and continued self-sufficiency.







††††††††††††††† Internet Resources and Associated Publications:

Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFFRI)

†††† http://www.afrri.usuhs.mil

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

†††† http://www.bt.cdc.gov/radiation

Database of Radiological Incidents and Related Events (compiled by R. Johnston, updated 5 Jan. 2005)

†††† http://www.johnstonsarchive.net/nuclear/radevents/radaccidents.html

Emergency Management Research Institute (EMRI)

†††† http://www.cbrnemergencymanagement.com

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA, within DHS)

†††† http://www.fema.gov/hazards/nuclear/radiolof.shtm

International Atomic Energy Agency

†††† http://www.iaea.org/

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

†††† http://www.ifrc.org/what/disasters

National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP)

†††† http://www.ncrponline.org/

Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (REAC/TS division)

†††† http://www.orau.gov/reacts

U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS)

†††† http://www.dhs.gov/dhspublic/interappp/editorial/editorial_0566.xml

U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs: Clinical Practice Guidelines, Office of Quality and Performance

†††† http://www.oqp.med.va.gov/cpg/BCR/BCR_Base.htm

World Health Organization

†††† http://www.who.int/ionizing_radiation/a_e/en



††††††††††† Texts:

American Association of Physicists in Medicine Report No. 53 (1995). Radiation Information for Hospital Personnel. Woodbury, NY: American Institute of Physics, Inc.

Baum, A. (1987). Toxins, Technology, and Natural Disasters. In G. R. a. B. VandenBos, B.K. (Ed.), Cataclysms, Crises, and Catastrophes: Psychology in Action (Vol. 6). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Blatz, Hanson (1964). Introduction to Radiological Health. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Book Company.


Button, G. V. (2002). Popular Media Reframing of Man-Made Disasters: A Cautionary Tale. In Oliver-Smith, A. and Hoffman, S. (Ed.), Catastrophe and Culture: The Anthropology of Disaster. Santa Fe: School of American Research Press.

Golding, D; Kasperson, J; Kasperson, R; Goble, R; Seley, J; Thompson, G; Wolf, C (1992).Managing Nuclear Accidents. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Healy, R. J. (1969). Emergency and Disaster Planning. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.


National Academy of Sciences: Committee on International Security and Arms Control. (1997). The Future of U.S. Nuclear Weapons Policy. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.


Oliver-Smith, A. (2002). Theorizing Disasters: Nature, Power, and Culture. In Oliver-Smith, A. and Hoffman, S. (Ed.), Catastrophe and Culture: The Anthropology of Disaster. Santa Fe: School of American Research Press.


Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (2003). Emerging Risks in the 21st Century: An Agenda for Action. Paris, France: OECD Publications.


Paine, R. (2002). Danger and the No-Risk Thesis. In In Oliver-Smith, A. and Hoffman, S. (Ed.), Catastrophe and Culture: The Anthropology of Disaster. Santa Fe: School of American Research Press.


Pan American Health Organization. Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Relief Coordination Program.Accessible: http://www.paho.org


Stephens, S. (2002). Bounding Uncertainty: The Post-Chernobyl Culture of Radiation Protection Experts. In Oliver-Smith, A. and Hoffman, S. (Ed.), Catastrophe and Culture: The Anthropology of Disaster. Santa Fe: School of American Research Press.


VandenBos, G. R. a. B., B.K. (1987). Preface. In G. R. V. a. B. K. Bryant (Ed.), Cataclysms, Crises, and Catastrophes: Psychology in Action (Vol. 6). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.


††††††††††††††† Journals:

Benger, J. (2004). Response to Radiation Incidents and Radionuclear Threats: Medical Treatment Should Be Given Only When Safe To Do So. British Medical Journal, 328, 1074.


Bross I.D., Ball M., and Falen S.(1979). A Dosage Response Curve for the One Rad Range: Adult Risks from Diagnostic Radiation. American Journal of Public Health. 69(2) 130-136


Buscombe, J.R. (2004).Response to radiation incidents and radionuclear threats: other threats may be more serious.British Medical Journal. May 1; 328(7447):1074


Committee on Environmental Health. (2003). Radiation Disasters and Children. Pediatrics, 111(6), 1455-1466.


Forrow, L., Sidel, V. W. (1998). Medicine and Nuclear War. JAMA, 280(5), 456-461.


Gofin, R. (2005). Preparedness and Response to Terrorism: A Framework for Public Health Action. European Journal of Public Health, 15(1), 100-104.


Helfand, I., Forrow, L., Tiwari, J. (2002). Nuclear Terrorism. British Medical Journal, 324, 356-359.


Holdstock, D., Waterston, E. (2004). Response to Radiation Incident and Radionuclear Threats: Renunciation of Nuclear Weapons Could Lesson the Threat. British Medical Journal, 328, 1074.


Mettler, F. A., Jr., Voelz, G. L. (2002). Major Radiation Exposure - What to Expect and How to Respond. The New England Journal of Medicine, 346(20), 1554-1561.


Muirhead, C. R. (2001). Cancer After Nuclear Incidents. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 58, 482-488.


Ricks R. REAC/TS Registry of radiation accidents, 1944-2000. Oak Ridge: REAC/TS, 2001


Smith, R. (2004). "Doctor, Come Quickly.There's Been a Nuclear Incident". British Medical Journal, 328, 7439.


Tan, G., Fitzgerald, M. (2002). Chemical-Biological-Radiological (CBR) Response: A Template for Hospital Emergency Departments. Medical Journal of Australia, 177(19), 196-199.


Turai, I; Veress, K; Gunalp, B; Souchkevitch, G. (2004). Medical Response to Radiation Incidents and Radionuclear Threats. British Medical Journal, 328:568-572