ANDREWS, SAMUEL (10 Feb. 1836-15 Apr. 1904), was a poor English immigrant who became a pioneer in the oil industry and cofounder of the STANDARD OIL CO. Born in Oaksey, England, a candlemaker by trade with little formal education, Andrews arrived in Cleveland in 1857. In 1859 he married Mary Cole; they had six children: Charlotte, Lillian, Bertha-Belle, Mary, Horace, and John. By 1859 he was an assistant to Chas. A. Dean, an oil supplier who refined lard oil and manufactured coal oil from cannel coal. With Andrews's help, Dean's company became the first in Cleveland to refine kerosene from crude oil. Understanding the commercial possibilities of kerosene, Andrews decided in 1863 to establish his own production company, Andrews, Clark & Co., convincing Maurice B. Clark and JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER to provide financial support. With Andrews' practical knowledge and Rockefeller's financial handling, the firm grew quickly, increasing production and taking on new partners. In 1870 it became the Standard Oil Co. with Andrews as works superintendent. Andrews often disagreed with Rockefeller and sold his interest in Standard Oil to Rockefeller in the spring of 1874 for $1 million. Andrews' fortune helped support several educational institutions in Cleveland, helping build BROOKS MILITARY SCHOOL in 1875. He served as a trustee of Adelbert College of Western Reserve University; and was also a member of the Erie St. Baptist Church. Andrews used his fortune to build one of the city's largest mansions. Known as ANDREWS'S FOLLY, it was inefficient and costly to maintain and was razed in 1923. Andrews died in Atlantic City, NJ and is buried at LAKE VIEW CEMETERY.