Early research on the Holocaust largely overlooked the role of gender in determining how Jewish women survived or perished. The same omission was true in the study of how ordinary German women experienced and participated in the Holocaust. Drawing on recent research, this course examines the ways ordinary German (and other non-Jewish) women responded to Nazism: what did they see, what did they do, and not do? Dispelling widely-held stereotypes, we will address the participation of women in the Holocaust as witnesses to atrocities, as resisters, as those who hid Jewish friends, as those who were themselves imprisoned, as well as those who served as guards who committed atrocities. Sources to be used include interviews, letters, diaries, court transcripts, photos, and films.