Today, the name of Samothrace evokes the island's most famous archaeological find: the spectacular statue of the Winged Victory now in the Musée du Louvre. In antiquity, the island's claim to fame was the cult of the Great Gods, one of the Greco-Roman world's most renowned mystery cults. Patronized by the successors of Alexander the Great, the Sanctuary of the Great Gods boasted some of the most spectacular marble architecture of the Hellenistic Age. Since 1938 teams of American archaeologists have excavated at Samothrace. This talk presents the most up-to-date archaeological research in the Sanctuary of the Great Gods, including results of recent NEH-sponsored excavations in the region of the Winged Victory.