Imaging: Carr et al.

Dynamic and Adaptive Experimentation with Real-Time fMRI

SJ Carr1, W Chen2, H Friel3, S Sahoo4, Y Stern5, J Fondran4, S Yang4, D Jordan6, A Crisan6, L Thompson7, HG Taylor8, C Tatsuoka1,4,9
1Neurology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA, 2Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA, 3Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, OH USA, 4Population and Quantitative Health Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH USA, 5Neurology, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA, 6Radiology, University Hospitals, Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland OH, USA  Radiology, 7Psychological Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA, 8Pediatrics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA, 9Neurological Institute, University Hospitals, Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland OH, USA 

We have developed an adaptive testing system with real-time fMRI. This system relies on a novel application of Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) statistics. This involves dynamic adjustment of stimuli based on BOLD responses as they are observed.  Advantages of dynamic adjustment include reduction in scan times, enhanced accuracy in classifying activation, and real-time tailoring of experimentation.  Activation patterns across difficulty levels can give insight into cognitive reserve (efficiency, capacity, plasticity through compensation). Cognitive reserve notions, characterized by efficient real-time fMRI paradigms, coupled with DTI-measured connectivity and detailed profiles of cognitive functioning, will help delineate and predict neural activation patterns. This work demonstrates a next generation of experimental designs for fMRI that are adaptive, tailored and efficient.