Revolving Sheep Bank Project
The Rural Change Project
(Under Construction)
Tibetan Street Songs
(Under Construction)

Tibetan Marriage/Polyandry, Demography, Fertility, Aging, and Family Planning

Penam 2002

Ben Jiao (Benjue)

Socio-economic and Cultural Factors Underlying the Contemporary Revival of Fraternal Polyandry in Tibet.
[PhD dissertation, Case Western Reserve University, 2001]

Polyandrous Marital Status in Rural Tibet
[Beijing: China Tibetology Publishing House, 2014]

Ben Jue (Ben Jiao). (Translated from the English [dissertation] by Wang Xuhui)

Taiyang xia de rizi: Xizang nongqu dianxing hunyin de renleixue yanjiu. Zhongguo zangxue chubanshe. (Life under the Sun: Anthropological Research on the typical marital type of a Tibetan agricultural district.)
[China-Tibet Studies Publishing House, 2012]

Bhatia, Shushum; Dranyi, Tsegyal; and Rowley, Derrick

A Social and Demographic Study of Tibetan Refugees in India
   [Social Science & Medicine. Volume 54, 2002: pp411-422]

Childs, Geoff

Old-Age Security, Religious Celibacy, And Aggregate Fertility In a Tibetan Population
[Journal of Population Research Vol. 18: 52-66, 2001.]

Tibetan Fertility Transitions: Comparisons With Europe, China, and India

[JIATS, no 4 (December 2008), THL #T5556, 21 pp]

A Preliminary Bibliography of Tibetan Demography  [Manuscript]

Demographic Analysis of Small Populations Using the Own-Children Method  (.pdf)
[Field Methods, Vol. 16, No. 4, November 2004 379–395]

Polyandry and Population Growth in a Historical Tibetan Society  (.pdf)
[History of the Family, Volume 8: 423–444, 2003]

Methods, Meanings, and Representations in the Study of Past Tibetan Societies  (.pdf)
[Journal of the International Association of Tibetan Studies, no. 1 (October 2005): 1-11]

Demographic Dimensions of an Intervillage Land Dispute in Nubri, Nepal  (.pdf)
[American Anthropologist. 103(4):1096-1113. 2001.]

Namas and Nyelus: Marriage, Fertility, and Illegitimacy in Tibetan Societies  (.pdf)
[Tibetan Borderlands. PIATS 2003.]

Childs, Geoff and Barkin, Gareth

Using Images to Promote Pronatalism and Sexual Endogamy Among Tibetan Exiles in South Asia
[Visual Anthropology Review, Vol. 22, Issue 2, pp. 34-52. 2006.]

Childs, Geoff; Goldstein, Melvyn C.; Wangdui, Puchung

Balancing People, Policies, and Resources in Rural Tibet
[In Eduardo S. Brondizio and Emilio F. Moran, eds, Human-Environment Interactions: Current and Future Directions. Springer Publishers 2012]

Childs, Geoff; Goldstein, Melvyn; Jiao, Ben; and Beall, Cynthia

Tibetan Fertility Transitions in China and South Asia  (.pdf)
[Population and Development Review  31(2): 337–349 (June 2005)]

Elderly Tibet monks, nuns get pension

Craig, Sienna

"Not Found in Tibetan Society": Culture, Childbirth, and a Politics of Life on the Roof of the World"
[Himalaya. XXX(1-2). 101-115, 2010.]

Craig, SR; Childs, G; Beall, CM

"Closing the Womb Door: Contraception Use and Fertility Transition Among Culturally Tibetan Women in Highland Nepal"
[Matern Child Health J. 2016 May 11. [Epub ahead of print]

Fischer, Andrew

Population Invasion versus Urban Exclusion in the Tibetan Areas of Western China

[Population and Development Review, 34, no. 4, December 2008: 631-662]

Freeberne, Michael

Changing Population Characteristics in Tibet, 1959 to 1965

[Population Studies, 19(3): 317-320. March 1966]

Goldstein, Melvyn C.

When Brothers Share A Wife

[Updated 2011 with author's note. Anthropology. 12/13. pp 74-78.]
[Natural History. 96(3):109-112, 1987.]

Pahari and Tibetan Polyandry Revisited
[Ethnology. 17(3): 325-327, 1978.]

Ethnogenesis and resource competition among Tibetan refugees in South India
[In Leo A. Desparas (ed.) Ethnicity and Resource Competition in Plural Societies, The Hague: Mouton, 159-86]

Stratification, Polyandry, and Family Structure in Central Tibet
[Southwestern Journal of Anthropology. 27(1): 64-74, 1971.]

Adjudication and Partition in the Tibetan Stem Family (.pdf)
[D. Buxbaum (ed.), Chinese Family Law and Social Change in Historical and Contemporary Perspective. Seattle, WA. University of Wahington Press. 205-214, 1978.]

New Perspectives on Tibetan Fertility and Population Decline  (.pdf)

[American Ethnologist. 8 (4): 721-729, 1981]

Fraternal Polyandry and Fertility

[Human Ecology. 4(3): 223-233, 1976]

 see also: Cynthia M. Beall & Melvyn C. Goldstein

Tibetan Fraternal Polyandry: A Test of Sociobiological Theory
[American Anthropologist. 83(1): 898-901, 1981


The Transformation of the Social Matrix of Tibetan Populations in the High Himalaya (.pdf)

[Environmental and Human Population Problems at High Altitude. Pp 101-105. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris. 1981.]


Preliminary Notes on Marriage and Kinship Among the Sherpa of Helambu and Solo-Khumba andLhasa Tibetans

[Contributions to Nepalese Studies. Vol. 2, No. 1: 57-70, 1975.]

Goldstein, Melvyn C.; Jiao, Ben (Benjor); Beall, Cynthia M.; and Tsering, Phuntsog

Goldstein, Melvyn C. and Beall, Cynthia M.

Growing Old in Tibet- Tradition, Family and Change
[In "Aging Asian Concepts and Experiences Past and Present", edited by Suzanne Formanek and Sepp Linhart, pp. 155-176. Vienna: Austrian Academy of Science Press.1997]


China's Birth Control Policy in the Tibet Autonomous Region: Myths and Realities (.pdf)
[Asian Survey Vol. XXXI. 3: 285-303, March 1991]

Goldstein, Melvyn C.; Beall, Cynthia M.; and Tsarong, Paljor

On Studying Fertility at High Altitude: A Rejoinder to Hoff (.pdf)
[American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 86, No. 2 (Jun., 1984), pp. 419-423]


High Altitude Hypoxia, Culture, and Human Fecundity/Fertility: A Comparative Study (.pdf)

[American Anthropologist. Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 61-64. 1983.]

Goldstein, Melvyn C.; Childs, Geoff; Wangdui, Puchung

'Going for Income' in Village Tibet: A Longitudinal Analysis of Change and Adaptation, 1997-98 to 2006-07(.pdf)

[Asian Survey. Vol. 48, No. 3, pp. 513-34. 2008.]

Goldstein, Melvyn C.; Childs, Geoff; Wangdui, Puchung; Beall, Cynthia M.

Hao, Yan

Tibetan Population in China: Myths and Facts Re-examined   (.pdf)
[Asian Ethnicity Vol. 1 N.1: 11-36, March 2000]

Levine, Nancy E. & Joan Silk

Why Polyandry Fails: Sources of Instability in Polyandrous Marriages (.pdf)
[Current Anthropology, Vol. 38, No. 3. (Jun., 1997), pp. 375-398.]

Levine, Nancy E.

Fathers and Sons: Kinship Value and Validation in Tibetan Polyandry (.pdf)
[Man, New Series, Vol. 22, No. 2. (Jun., 1987), pp. 267-286.]

Differential Child Care in Three Tibetan Communities: Beyond Son Preference  (.pdf)
[Population and Development Review Vol. 13 N.2: 281-305, 1987]

The Demise of Marriage in Purang, Tibet: 1959-1990
[Tibetan Studies Vol. 1, Proceedings of 6th Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies. 1992]

Ma, Rong

Temporary Migrants in Lhasa in 2005  (.pdf)
[Co-written with Dr. Tanzen Lhundup. Presented at the 11th Seminar of the International Association of Tibetan Study, Bonn University, Germany (August 27-September 2)]

Han and Tibetan Residential Patterns in Lhasa  (.pdf)
[The China Quarterly No. 128 (December 1991), pp. 814-835.]

Population Structure and Changes in the Tibet Autonomous Region  (.pdf)
[Presented at the International Conference on “Tibet Autonomy” at Harvard University (Nov. 28-29, 2007)]

Marriages and Spouse Selection in Tibet  (.pdf)
[Development and Society, Vol 30 No.1 (June 2001), pp 79-117]

Ma, Rong and Pan, Naigu

The Tibetan Population and Their Geographical Distribution in China   (.pdf)
[Tibetan Studies: Proceedings of the 6th Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies. 
  Vol.1: 507-516, 1994]

Min, Feng

Matrilineal Marriage in Tibetan Areas in Western Sichuan Province   (.pdf)
[Asian Highlands Perspectives, 6 (2010), 251-280]

Rilye, Nancy E.
China's Population: New Trends and Challenges   (.pdf)
   [Population Reference Bureau, Vol 59, No 2. 2004]

Ross, J. L.

Culture and Fertility in the Nepal Himalayas: A Test of a Hypothesis (.pdf)
[Human Ecology. 12(2): 163-181, 1984.]

Schrempf, Mona

Introduction (with Houben, Vincent), and Planning the Modern Tibetan Family in China (.pdf)
[Excerpts from "Figurations of Modernity: Global and Local Representations in Comparative Perspective", published Dec 2008 by Campus Verlag]


Planning the Modern Tibetan Family (.pdf)
[V. Houben and M Schrempf (eds.), Figurations of Modernity - Global and Local Representations in Comparative Perspective, pp. 121-151, 2008]


Shastri, Lobsang


The Marriage Customs of Ru-Thog (Mnga'-Ris) (.pdf)
[Tibetan Studies: Proceedings of the 6th Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies, Vol 2. 1992]

Tenzin Wangmo

Health Perception and Health Behavior of Elder Tibetans Living in India and Switzerland (.pdf)
[Journal of Cross Cultural Gerontology, 26: 331-348. 2011]


Abstract: Tibetan elders have lived in exile since the failed uprising against Chinese rule in 1959. Using mixed methods approach, this study explored the perceived health and health behaviors of 30 older Tibetans living in India and Switzerland using Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Model. Results indicate that elder Tibetans living in Switzerland enjoyed better health and well-being than those living in India. Because of the availability of old age benefits, pensions, and health insurance, participants in Switzerland had greater financial independence, and fewer problems with healthcare access and affordability than those in India. In addition to financial reimbursement, the contribution and importance of personal, familial, community, and religious factors to participant’s health behaviors are examined. The study is a case example depicting the impact of different factors from micro to macro on the health and well-being of a refugee group. Its implications such as the implementation of old age benefits for older persons living in developing countries are discussed.



Changing expectations of care among older Tibetans living in India and Switzerland (.pdf)
[Ageing & Society, 30: 879-896. 2010 ]



Tenzin Wangmo; Teaster, Pamela B.

The Bridge From Then to Now: Tibetan Elders Living in Diaspora (.pdf)
[Journal of Applied Gerontology, 29(4): 434-454. 2010]