I have over 15 years of experience in the fields of cardiovascular engineering, cardiac electrophysiology, and medical devices. I have been interested in the mechanism of atrial fibrillation and signal processing. I have researched two canine models (sterile pericarditis and vagal nerve stimulation atrial fibrillation) and human persistent or postoperative atrial fibrillation to understand the mechanism of atrial fibrillation. I have developed, improved, and applied several signal processing analysis algorithms in both time and frequency domains to characterize atrial electrograms of atrial fibrillation during real-time data acquisition. I have applied these analysis algorithms to clinical studies. Using high density mapping with these algorithms, we can understand the mechanism of atrial fibrillation and apply real-time analysis algorithms to improve surgical or catheter ablation therapies. More recently, I have partnered with a manufacturing company for developing a smart mapping catheter (catheter + analysis algorithm).
- An Evaluation of Phase Analysis to Interpret Atrial Activation Patterns during Persistent Atrial Fibrillation for Targeted Ablation. Lee S., Khrestian CM, Sahadevan J, Waldo AL. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2022;11(19), 5807.
- Reliable pace termination of postoperative atrial fibrillation in the canine sterile pericarditis model: Implications for atypical atrial flutter. Lee S, Vitebskiy S, Goldstein RN, Khrestian CM and Waldo AL. Heart Rhythm O2. 2022;3:91-96.
- Paradigm shifts in electrophysiological mechanisms of atrial fibrillation. Schotten U., Lee S., Zeemering S., Waldo AL. Europace, 2021; 23(Supplement_2): ii9-ii13.
- New Insights into Understanding Rotor versus Focal Activation in Patients with Persistent Atrial Fibrillation. Lee S., Khrestian CM., Sahadevan J., Markowitz A., Waldo AL. JACC Clin Electrophysiol. 2021;7:909-919.
- Reconsidering the multiple wavelet hypothesis of atrial fibrillation. Lee S, Khrestian CM, Sahadevan J, Waldo AL. Heart Rhythm 2020. PMID: 32585192
- Effect of lidocaine injection of ganglionated plexi in a canine model and patients with persistent and long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation. Lee S., Khrestian A., Waldo AL., Khrestian CM., Markowitz A., Sahadevan J. Journal of the American Heart Association. 2019;8:e011401 PMCID: PMC6585332
- Characterization of Foci and Nonrandom Breakthrough During Persistent and Long-Standing Persistent Atrial Fibrillation in Patients. Lee S., Sahadevan J., Khrestian C., Markowitz A., Waldo A.L. Journal of American Heart Association 2017;6(3):e005274. PMCID:PMC5524032
- Simultaneous Bi-Atrial High Density (510 - 512 electrodes) Epicardial Mapping of Persistent and Long-Standing Persistent Atrial Fibrillation in Patients: New Insights into the Mechanism of Its Maintenance. Lee S., Sahadevan J., Khrestian C., Cakulev I., Markowitz A., Waldo A.L. Circulation 2015;132:2108-2117. PMCID: PMC4666790
- Insights into New Onset Atrial Fibrillation Following Open Heart Surgery and Implications for Type II Atrial Flutter. Sadrpour S.A., Srinivasan D., Bhimani A.A., Lee S., Ryu K., Cakulev I., Khrestian C.M., Markowitz A., Waldo A.L., Sahadevan J. Europace 2015;17(12):1834-9. PMID: 25911349
- Effects of K201’s metabolite, M-II, on atrial flutter and fibrillation; simultaneous multisite mapping studies in the canine sterile pericarditis model. Sadrpour S.A., Serhal M., Khrestian C., Lee S., Fields T., Dittrich H., Waldo A.L. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2015;65:494-9.
- Ranolazine terminated atrial flutter and fibrillation in a canine model. Bhimani A.A., Yasuda T., Sadrpour S.A., Khrestian C.M., Lee S., Zeng D., Belardinelli L., Waldo A.L. Heart Rhythm, 2014;11:1592-99.
- High Density Mapping of Atrial Fibrillation During Vagal Nerve Stimulation in the Canine Heart - Restudying the Moe Hypothesis. Lee S, Sahadevan J, Khrestian C, Durand D, Waldo A. Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 2013;24:328-335. PMID: 23210508
- An algorithm to measure beat-to-beat cycle lengths for assessment of atrial electrogram rate and regularity during atrial fibrillation. Lee S, Ryu K, Waldo A, Khrestian C, Durand D, Sahadevan J. Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology. 2013;24:199-206. PMID: 23140386