Raymond W. Redline, MD

Department of Pathology
School of Medicine
Department of Reproductive Biology
School of Medicine

Research Information

Research Interests

Mechanisms that facilitate and protect the developing fetus within the uterus are obscure. Hence, the pathogenesis of several important pregnancy disorders is poorly understood and we have little insight into the underlying etiology of many adverse pregnancy outcomes. The focus of my work has been to understand basic developmental mechanisms in murine and human placentas and how they are altered in various disease states. Our most recent efforts have centered on standardization of diagnostic criteria and terminology in perinatal pathology and determination of which lesions are most strongly associated with specific adverse outcomes.

External Appointments

Attending Physician, Department of Pathology, Anatomic
University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center



Redline RW: Classification of placental lesions. In R Lukose, M Mazaharally, R Redline, B Cox. The Placenta Pathology Tool: an online application for understanding histopathologic lesions, Am J Obstet Gynecol, 2023, Open Access, published online ahead of print, 7-31-23., https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.203.07.051

Redline RW, Roberts DJ, Parast MM, Ernst LM, Morgan TK, Greene MF, Gyamfi-Bannerman C, Louis J, Maltepe E, Mestan K, Romero R, Stone, J. Placental pathology is necessary to understand common pregnancy complications and achieve an improved taxonomy of obstetric disease.  Am J Obstet Gynecol 2023; 228(2):187-202, https://doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2022.08.010.  PMID: 35973475

Redline RW, Placental pathology: pathways leading to or associated with fetal brain injury, Exp Neuol 2022; 347: 113917, https://doi:10.1016/j.expneurol.2021.113917  PMID: 34748755

Redline RW, Ravishankar S, Bagby CM, Saab ST, Zarei S. Four major patterns of placental injury: a stepwise guide for understanding and implementing the 2016 Amsterdam consensus. Mod Pathol 2021; 34: 1074-1092, https://doi:10.1038/s41379-021-00747-4. PMID: 33558658

Redline RW, Ravishankar S, Bagby CM, Saab ST, Zarei S. Diffuse and localized COVID-19 placentitis: prevalence and pathogenesis of an uncommon complication of SARS CoV2 infection during pregnancy. Am J Surg Pathol, 2022; 46: 1036-1047, https://doi: 10.1097/PAS.0000000000001889. PMID 35319524

Redline RW, Vik T, Heerema-McKenney A, Jamtoy AH, Ravishankar S, Nhung Ton Nu T, Vogt C, Ng P, Nelson KB, Lyderson S, Oskoui M: Diagnostic reliability for identifying specific patterns of placental injury as defined by the Amsterdam classification. Arch Pathol Lab Med, 2022; 146: 372-378, https//doi.org/10.5858/arpa.2020-0753-OA, PMID 34252177

Zhou YY, Ravishankar S, Luo G, Redline RW.  Predictors of high grade and other clinically significant placental findings by indication for submission in singleton placentas from term births.  Pediatr Devel Pathol, 2020; 23: 274-284. https://doi.org/10.1177/1093526620904801.  PMID 32146874

Redline RW, Boyd TK, Roberts DJ. Placental and Gestational Pathology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2018

Redline RW, Distal villous immaturity. Diagnostic Histopathology 2012; 18(5):189-94

Redline RW, Inflammatory response in acute chorioamnionitis. Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, 2012; 17(1):20-25.

Bagby C, Redline RW, Multifocal chorangiomatosis. Pediatr Dev Pathol 2011; 14(1): 38-44.

Redline RW, Han YW, Lu CY, Murine Fetoplacental Infection Models. Infect Immun 2010; 78(11): 4965-4966

Redline RW , Disorders of Placental Circulation and The Fetal Brain. In Fetal Neurology (A J du Plessis, ed) Clin Perinatol. 2009 Sep;36(3):549-59.

Redline RW, Sagar P, King ME, Grabowski EF, Krishnamoorthy K, Roberts D. Case Records of the Massachusetts General Hospital (12-2008): A newborn with intermittent apnea and seizures. N Engl J Med 2008; 358: 51-61.

Redline RW, Cerebral palsy in term infants: a clinicopathologic analysis of 158 medicolegal case reviews. Pediatr Devel Pathol 2008; 11: 456-464.

Redline RW, Placental pathology: a systematic approach with clinical correlations. Placenta 29, Supplement A, Trophoblast Research 2008; 22:S86-S91.

Redline RW, Minich N, Taylor HG, Hack M, Placental lesions as predictors of cerebral palsy and abnormal neurocognitive function at school age in extremely low birth weight infants (<1 kg). Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2007 Jul-Aug;10(4):282-92.

Redline RW, Villitis of unknown etiology: noninfectious chronic villitis in the placenta. Hum Pathol 2007; 38(10): 1439-1446

Redline RW. Severe fetal placental vascular lesions in term infants with neurologic impairment. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005; 192(2): 452-457.

Redline RW, Boyd T, Campbell V, Hyde S, Kaplan C, Khong TY, Prashner H, Waters BL. Maternal vascular underperfusion: Nosology and reproducibility of placental reaction patterns. Pediatr Devel Pathol 2004; 7:237-249.

Redline RW, Ariel I, Baergen RN, deSa DJ, Kraus FT, Roberts DJ, Sander CM. Fetal vascular obstructive lesions: Nosology and reproducibility of placental reaction patterns. Pediatr Devel Pathol 2004; 7: 443-452.

Han YH, Redline RW, Li M, Yin L, Hill G, McCormick TS. Fusobacterium nucleatum induces premature and term stillbirth in pregnant mice: implication of oral bacteria in preterm birth. Infect Immun 2004; 72: 2272-2279.

Redline RW, Faye-Peterson O, Heller D, Qureshi F, Savell V, Vogler C, Amniotic infection syndrome: nosology and reproducibility of placental reaction patterns. Pediatr Devel Pathol 2003; 6: 435-448.


Kraus FT, Redline RW, Gersell D, Nelson DM, Dicke JM. "Placental Pathology". Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Non-tumor Diagnostic Pathology Series, American Registry of Pathology, Washington DC, 2004


Doctor of Medicine
Boston University School of Medicine
Bachelor of Arts with honors
Brown University

Residencies, Internships and Fellowships

Postdoctoral Fellowship in Immunology
Harvard Medical School
Fellowship in Gynecologic and Perinatal Pathology
Brigham and Women’s Hospital
Residency in Anatomic and Clinical Pathology
University Hospitals of Cleveland
Internship in Obstetrics and Gynecology
MetroHealth Medical Center

Additional Information


American Board of Pathology - Anatomic and Clinical Pathology
American Board of Pathology - Pediatric Pathology