Electives

A minimum of 13 credit hours in elective coursework at the graduate level must be completed. Elective courses can be selected from such areas as anatomy, biological anthropology, biochemistry, biomedical engineering, molecular biology, neurosciences, and physiology. Courses not listed here should be at the 400 level or above and must be approved by the academic advisor and the Graduate Executive Committee.

Semester Course Code Course Name Credits
All ANAT 499 Independent Study 1-4
ANAT 651* Thesis M.S. 1-9
NTRN 401 Nutrition for Community and
Health Care Professionals
2-3
NTRN 410 Basic Oxygen & Physiological Function 3
PHOL 485 Comparative & Evolutionary Physiology 4
PHRM 525 Topics in Cell and Molecular Pharmacology 0-18
Fall ANAT 401 Virtual Anatomy of Human Body 2
ANAT 431 Statistical Methods I 3
ANAT 462 Principles of Developmental Biology 3
ANAT 467** Topics in Evolutionary Biology 3
ANAT 475 Human Evolution: The Fossil Evidence 3
ANAT 503** Readings and Discussions 1-3
BETH 406 Society, Religion, and Bioethics 3
BETH 410 Foundations of Medicine, Society and Culture 3
BIOC 407 Introduction to Biochemistry:
From Molecules to Medical Science
4
BIOC 420 Current Topics in Cancer 3
PHRM 409 Principles of Pharmacology 3
Spring ANAT 467** Topics in Evolutionary Biology 3
ANAT 503** Readings and Discussions 1-3
ANAT 523 Histopathology of Organ Systems 3
ANAT 560 Applied Neuroanatomy 3
ANAT 611 Practicum in Human Gross Anatomy 3
BIOC 408 Molecular Biology 4
BIOL 443** Microbiology 3
PATH 416 Fundamental Immunology 4
Summer ANAT 520 Imaging Anatomy 3
BIOC 405 Principles of Biochemistry: An Introduction to the Molecules of Life 3
BIOL 443** Microbiology 3

*Course requires Plan A (thesis) M.S.
**Course offered in two semesters

This course introduces students to the gross anatomical structure of the human body using innovative Microsoft HoloLens and other virtual technologies. It differs from most traditional anatomy courses not only in its use of three-dimensional imaging technology but also in its systemic rather than regional approach; the structure of the human body is learned by studying organ systems (e.g., the nervous system, the musculoskeletal system) rather than focusing on one region at a time (e.g., the thorax or the lower limb). This approach gives students the 'big picture' of how the human body is organized, thereby providing a solid foundation for other courses that deal with the anatomy of the human body in greater detail. 

Application of statistical techniques with particular emphasis on problems in the biomedical sciences. Basic probability theory, random variables, and distribution functions. Point and interval estimation, regression, and correlation. Problems whose solution involves using packaged statistical programs. First part of year-long sequence. Offered as ANAT 431, BIOL 431, CRSP 431, PQHS 431 and MPHP 431.

The descriptive and experimental aspects of animal development. Gametogenesis, fertilization, cleavage, morphogenesis, induction, differentiation, organogenesis, growth, and regeneration. Students taking the graduate-level course will prepare an NIH-format research proposal as the required term paper. 

The focus for this course on a special topic of interest in evolutionary biology will vary from one offering to the next. Examples of possible topics include theories of speciation, the evolution of language, the evolution of sex, evolution and biodiversity, molecular evolution. ANAT/ANTH/EEPS/PHIL/PHOL 467/BIOL 468 will require a longer, more sophisticated term paper, and additional class presentation. 

This course will survey the biological and behavioral changes that occurred in the hominid lineage during the past five million years. In addition to a thorough review of the fossil evidence for human evolution, students will develop the theoretical framework in evolutionary biology. Recommended preparation: ANTH 377, BIOL 225.

Laboratory research project. Student must obtain approval of a supervising Anatomy department professor before registration and list the professor's name on the schedule card.

In-depth consideration of special selected topics through critical evaluation of the literature. Student must obtain approval of supervising Anatomy department professor before registration.

Imaging anatomy will reinforce the student's knowledge of anatomy and introduce the field of radiology. Students would be motivated to broaden their understanding of anatomy by being exposed to the application of that knowledge. The curriculum would introduce radiologic concepts, while stressing the normal anatomy of organ systems by imaging modalities. Anatomical structures will be recognized by projectional and cross-sectional modalities. The student will be expected to demonstrate the anatomical characteristics of that structure by oral or written account, for example course, area of supply, relations, morphology, etc. Recommended Preparation: Comprehensive knowledge of human anatomy, such as ANAT 411.

Comprehensive course covering the underlying basic mechanisms of injury and cell death, inflammation, immunity, infection, and neoplasia followed by pathology of specific organ systems. Material will include histological ('structure') and physiological ('function') aspects related to pathology (human emphasis). Recommended preparation: ANAT 412 or permission of instructor. 

This course is constructed to reinforce the student's understanding of neuroanatomy. Through problem-based learning the student will set their own learning objectives based on a neurosurgical case. Presentations will use imaging, anatomic diagrams, and cadaveric dissection to demonstrate applications. Learning in this clinical context will increase motivation and understanding of this important subject. Primarily for medical students and graduate students, enrollment is by permission of instructor and completing ANAT 414, Neurological Anatomy. Prereq: ANAT 414.

A course of study designed especially for the preparation of teachers that involves the supervised practical application of previously studied theory. The teaching experience obtained will be obtained in ANAT 411 - Human Gross Anatomy. Teaching will be guided, supervised, and evaluated by the appropriate faculty from the department of anatomy. The three sections of ANAT 611 and the subjects covered are: Trunk Gross Anatomy (6 weeks), Musculoskeletal Gross Anatomy (3 weeks), Head & Neck Gross Anatomy (4 weeks). Required preparation: ANAT 411 and permission of instructor.

Thesis research, supervised by thesis advisor. Only students pursuing a Plan A (thesis) Master’s degree can register for this course, and once a student registers for ANAT 651, they must continue to register for it every fall/spring  semester through graduation. Variable credit (1-9 cr.), graded satisfactory/unsatisfactory. 

The course examines the interplay of politics, governmental structures, culture and religion and their impact on ethics questions that arise in the health arena. The course provides a broad overview of the basic tenets of several major faith traditions and examines how and why the interpretation of such tenets and their impact on bioethics issues varies across different societies. The specific domains in which we explore such issues, e.g., reproductive health, regenerative medicine, end-of-life issues, infectious disease, may be rotated each year.

Objectives: Students will be able to:

  • Describe how religious views and interests affect policymaking with respect to a variety of health-related issues
  • Enunciate strategies for the reconciliation of bioethics perspectives stemming from diverse religious interests in a pluralistic society
  • Compare and contrast the perspective of various world religions with respect to specific bioethics issues

Prereq: Open to Graduate Students and Seniors only.

Topics will include comparative medical systems and concepts of health, medical history, illness narratives and narrative ethics, social determinants of health and health inequalities, analysis of representations of illness and medicine in literature and the arts, and medical rhetoric. Students who complete the course should develop a command of the basic problems, approaches, and literatures in the social and cultural contexts of health sickness, and medicine. Students will be able to identify epistemology, theory, methodology and data from neighboring disciplines and understand affordances and costs in each. 

This summer course provides an introduction to the macromolecules and small molecules that are the foundation of living systems. The focus is on mammalian biochemistry, with links to human biology and human disease. Topics include: protein structure and function; enzyme mechanisms, kinetics and regulation; membranes; hormone action; bioenergetics; intermediary metabolism, including pathways and regulation of carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid, and nucleotide biosynthesis and breakdown. One semester of biology is recommended. Suitable for students interested in careers in the health professions. This course is not open to undergraduate Biochemistry majors or Biochemistry graduate students.

Overview of the macromolecules and small molecules key to all living systems. Topics include: protein structure and function; enzyme mechanisms, kinetics and regulation; membrane structure and function; bioenergetics; hormone action; intermediary metabolism, including pathways and regulation of carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid, and nucleotide biosynthesis and breakdown. The material is presented to build links to human biology and human disease. One semester of biology is recommended. Prereq: CHEM 223 and CHEM 224.

An examination of the flow of genetic information from DNA to RNA to protein. Topics include: nucleic acid structure; mechanisms and control of DNA, RNA, and protein biosynthesis; recombinant DNA; and mRNA processing and modification. Where possible, eukaryotic and prokaryotic systems are compared. Special topics include yeast as a model organism, molecular biology of cancer, and molecular biology of the cell cycle. Current literature is discussed briefly as an introduction to techniques of genetic engineering. Recommended preparation: BIOC 307. 

The concept of cancer hallmarks has provided a useful guiding principle in our understanding of the complexity of cancer. The hallmarks include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, enabling replicative immortality, activating invasion and metastasis, inducing angiogenesis, resisting cell death, deregulating cellular energetics, avoiding immune destruction, tumor-promoting inflammation, and genome instability and mutation. The objectives of this course are to (1) examine the principles of some of these hallmarks, and (2) explore potential therapies developed based on these hallmarks of cancer. This is a student-driven and discussion-based graduate course. Students should have had some background on the related subjects and have read scientific papers in their prior coursework. Students will be called on to present and discuss experimental design, data and conclusions from assigned publications. There will be no exams or comprehensive papers but students will submit a one-page critique (strengths and weaknesses) of one of the assigned papers prior to each class meeting. The course will end with a full-day student-run symposium on topics to be decided jointly by students and the course director. Grades will be based on class participation, written critiques, and symposium presentations. Offered as BIOC 420, MBIO 420, PATH 422, and PHRM 420. Prereq: CBIO 453 and CBIO 455.

The physiology, genetics, biochemistry, and diversity of microorganisms. The subject will be approached both as a basic biological science that studies the molecular and biochemical processes of cells and viruses, and as an applied science that examines the involvement of microorganisms in human disease as well as in workings of ecosystems, plant symbioses, and industrial processes. The course is divided into four major areas: bacteria, viruses, medical microbiology, and environmental and applied microbiology. 

This course will focus on understanding how diet and nutrition impact health and wellness throughout the life cycle. There are core concepts in human nutrition that all health care providers should understand to optimize their care of individuals, themselves, and the community. These core concepts are the focus of this course. Students who complete all course modules and assignments with a passing grade will earn 2 credits. In order to earn 3 credits, students must complete all course modules and assignments with a passing grade and complete an additional 20 page paper on a nutrition topic approved by the instructor.

On-line lecture only course which explores the significance and consequences of oxygen and oxygen metabolism in living organisms. Topics to be covered include transport by blood tissues, oxygen toxicity, and mitochondrial metabolism. Emphasis will be placed on mammalian physiology with special reference to brain oxidative metabolism and blood flow as well as whole body energy expenditure and oxidative stress related to disease. The course will cover additional spans of physiology, nutrition and anatomy.

Introductory immunology providing an overview of the immune system, including activation, effector mechanisms, and regulation. Topics include antigen-antibody reactions, immunologically important cell surface receptors, cell-cell interactions, cell-mediated immunity, innate versus adaptive immunity, cytokines, and basic molecular biology and signal transduction in B and T lymphocytes, and immunopathology. Three weekly lectures emphasize experimental findings leading to the concepts of modern immunology. An additional recitation hour is required to integrate the core material with experimental data and known immune mediated diseases. Five mandatory 90 minute group problem sets per semester will be administered outside of lecture and recitation meeting times. Graduate students will be graded separately from undergraduates, and 22 percent of the grade will be based on a critical analysis of a recently published, landmark scientific article. Prereq: Graduate standing and consent of instructor.

Our intent is to expand the course from the current 3 hours per week (1.5 hour on Monday and Wednesday) to 4 hours per week (1.5 hours on Monday and Wednesday plus 1 hour on Friday). Muscle structure and Function, Myasthenia gravis and Sarcopenia; Central Nervous System, (Synaptic Transmission, Sensory System, Autonomic Nervous System, CNS circuits, Motor System, Neurodegenerative Diseases, Paraplegia and Nerve Compression); Cardiovascular Physiology (Regulation of Pressure and flow; Circulation, Cardiac Cycle, Electrophysiology, Cardiac Function, Control of Cardiovascular function, Hypertension); Hemorragy, Cardiac Hypertrophy and Fibrillation; Respiration Physiology (Gas Transport and Exchange, Control of Breathing, Acid/base regulation, Cor Pulmonaris and Cystic Fibrosis, Sleeping apnea and Emphysema); Renal Physiology (Glomerular Filtration, Tubular Function/transport, Glomerulonephritis, Tubulopaties); Gastro-Intestinal Physiology (Gastric motility, gastric function, pancreas and bile function, digestion and absorption, Liver Physiology; Pancreatitis, Liver Disease and cirrhosis); Endocrine Physiology (Thyroid, Adrenal glands, endocrine pancreas, Parathyroid, calcium sensing receptor, Cushing and diabetes, Reproductive hormones, eclampsia); Integrative Physiology (Response to exercise, fasting and feeding, aging). For all the classes, the students will receive a series of learning objectives by the instructor to help the students address and focus their attention to the key aspects of the organ physiology (and physiopathology). The evaluation of the students will continue to be based upon the students' participation in class (60% of the grade) complemented by a mid-term and a final exam (each one accounting for 20% of the final grade). 

This course presents physiological concepts from the comparative and evolutionary perspective. Aspects of vertebrate and mammalian evolution will be considered with respect to the generation of adaptive advantages for organisms to changing environmental challenges since the Cambrian. Comparative physiological concepts include scaling, variations in nutrition, energy metabolism and work efficiency. The important influences of time, temperature, water and energy on mammalian biology will be presented. The course is a lecture based course that can be taken in person or on-line. Evaluations will be by regular quizzes, a mid-term and a final exam, all MCQ.

Principles of Pharmacology introduces the basic principles that underlie all of Pharmacology. The first half of the course introduces, both conceptually and quantitatively, drug absorption, distribution, elimination and metabolism (pharmacokinetics) and general drug receptor theory and mechanism of action (pharmacodynamics). Genetic variation in response to drugs (pharmacogenetics) is integrated into these basic principles. The second half of the course covers selected drug classes chosen to illustrate these principles. Small group/recitation sessions use case histories to reinforce presentation of principles and to discuss public perceptions of therapeutic drug use. Graduate students will be expected to critically evaluate articles from the literature and participate in a separate weekly discussion session. Recommended preparation for PHRM 409: Undergraduate degree in science or permission of instructor.

Individual library research project under the guidance of a pharmacology sponsor. Projects will reflect the research interest of the faculty sponsor, including molecular endocrinology, neuropharmacology, receptor activation and signal transduction, molecular mechanisms of enzyme action and metabolic regulation.