A minimum of 13 credit hours in elective coursework at the graduate level must be completed. Elective courses can be graduate courses, including research coursework, selected from such areas as anatomy, biological anthropology, biochemistry, biomedical engineering, molecular biology, neurosciences, and, physiology. Other courses must be approved by the academic advisor or the Graduate Executive Committee.

This course focuses on the anatomical and taxonomic diversity of mammals in an evolutionary context. The emphasis is on living (extant) mammals, but extinct mammals are also discussed. By the end of the course, students will be able to: (1) describe the key anatomical and physiological features of mammals; (2) name all orders and most families of living mammals; (3) identify a mammal skull to order and family; (4) understand how to create and interpret a phylogenetic tree; (5) appreciate major historical patterns in mammal diversity and biogeography as revealed by the fossil record; (6) read and critique a scientific article dealing with mammal evolution. One weekend field trip to Cleveland Metroparks Zoo; additional individual and group visits to the Cleveland Museum of Natural History. This course satisfies a laboratory requirement for the biology major. Prereq: BIOL 214.

The descriptive and experimental aspects of animal development. Gametogenesis, fertilization, cleavage, morphogenesis, induction, differentiation, organogenesis, growth, and regeneration. Students taking the graduate-level course will prepare an NIH-format research proposal as the required term paper. 

The focus for this course on a special topic of interest in evolutionary biology will vary from one offering to the next. Examples of possible topics include theories of speciation, the evolution of language, the evolution of sex, evolution and biodiversity, molecular evolution. ANAT/ANTH/EEPS/PHIL/PHOL 467/BIOL 468 will require a longer, more sophisticated term paper, and additional class presentation. 

This course will survey the biological and behavioral changes that occurred in the hominid lineage during the past five million years. In addition to a thorough review of the fossil evidence for human evolution, students will develop the theoretical framework in evolutionary biology. Recommended preparation: ANTH 377, BIOL 225.

This course for upper division undergraduates and graduate students will review the following topics: human skeletal development and identification; and forensic identification (skeletal aging, sex identification and population affiliation).

Laboratory research project. Student must obtain approval of a supervising Anatomy department professor before registration and list the professor's name on the schedule card.

In-depth consideration of special selected topics through critical evaluation of the literature. Student must obtain approval of supervising Anatomy department professor before registration.

Imaging anatomy will reinforce the student's knowledge of anatomy and introduce the field of radiology. Students would be motivated to broaden their understanding of anatomy by being exposed to the application of that knowledge. The curriculum would introduce radiologic concepts, while stressing the normal anatomy of organ systems by imaging modalities. Anatomical structures will be recognized by projectional and cross-sectional modalities. The student will be expected to demonstrate the anatomical characteristics of that structure by oral or written account, for example course, area of supply, relations, morphology, etc. Recommended Preparation: Comprehensive knowledge of human anatomy, such as ANAT 411.

Comprehensive course covering the underlying basic mechanisms of injury and cell death, inflammation, immunity, infection, and neoplasia followed by pathology of specific organ systems. Material will include histological ('structure') and physiological ('function') aspects related to pathology (human emphasis). Recommended preparation: ANAT 412 or permission of instructor. 

This course is constructed to reinforce the student's understanding of neuroanatomy. Through problem-based learning the student will set their own learning objectives based on a neurosurgical case. Presentations will use imaging, anatomic diagrams, and cadaveric dissection to demonstrate applications. Learning in this clinical context will increase motivation and understanding of this important subject. Primarily for medical students and graduate students, enrollment is by permission of instructor and completing ANAT 414, Neurological Anatomy. Prereq: ANAT 414.

A course of study designed especially for the preparation of teachers that involves the supervised practical application of previously studied theory. The teaching experience obtained will be obtained in ANAT 411 - Human Gross Anatomy. Teaching will be guided, supervised, and evaluated by the appropriate faculty from the department of anatomy. The three sections of ANAT 611 and the subjects covered are: Trunk Gross Anatomy (6 weeks), Musculoskeletal Gross Anatomy (3 weeks), Head & Neck Gross Anatomy (4 weeks). Required preparation: ANAT 411 and permission of instructor.

Overview of the macromolecules and small molecules key to all living systems. Topics include: protein structure and function; enzyme mechanisms, kinetics and regulation; membrane structure and function; bioenergetics; hormone action; intermediary metabolism, including pathways and regulation of carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid, and nucleotide biosynthesis and breakdown. The material is presented to build links to human biology and human disease. One semester of biology is recommended. Prereq: CHEM 223 and CHEM 224.

An examination of the flow of genetic information from DNA to RNA to protein. Topics include: nucleic acid structure; mechanisms and control of DNA, RNA, and protein biosynthesis; recombinant DNA; and mRNA processing and modification. Where possible, eukaryotic and prokaryotic systems are compared. Special topics include yeast as a model organism, molecular biology of cancer, and molecular biology of the cell cycle. Current literature is discussed briefly as an introduction to techniques of genetic engineering. Recommended preparation: BIOC 307. 

This elective clinical rotation is designed to provide the student with the knowledge and skills in an area of interest. Students will gain an understanding of the variety of problems encountered in a medical or surgical sub-specialty discipline. The formulation and understanding of the many and varied medical and/or surgical sub-specialty problems is accomplished via the accurate collection of data through a complete history and physical exam, interpretation of diagnostic testing, formulation of a problem list, and the development of a plan for each presenting problem including pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic management. Acquisition of these skills helps facilitate the PA student to progress through the clinical rotation with increasing complexity of clinical experiences, building confidence, competence and compassion. In addition to gaining clinical skills specific to the specialty of the rotation, the student will also continue to develop skills in systematic medical problem solving and patient management abilities, establish or reinforce patterns of independent learning, self-evaluation, interprofessional relationships and communication skills. Elective rotation sites are chosen based on practice characteristics that are important for the PA student within this rotation. These may include practice location, patient populations, and availability of specific experiences and procedures. Prereq: Students must be in Physician Assistant Program.

Introductory immunology providing an overview of the immune system, including activation, effector mechanisms, and regulation. Topics include antigen-antibody reactions, immunologically important cell surface receptors, cell-cell interactions, cell-mediated immunity, innate versus adaptive immunity, cytokines, and basic molecular biology and signal transduction in B and T lymphocytes, and immunopathology. Three weekly lectures emphasize experimental findings leading to the concepts of modern immunology. An additional recitation hour is required to integrate the core material with experimental data and known immune mediated diseases. Five mandatory 90 minute group problem sets per semester will be administered outside of lecture and recitation meeting times. Graduate students will be graded separately from undergraduates, and 22 percent of the grade will be based on a critical analysis of a recently published, landmark scientific article. Prereq: Graduate standing and consent of instructor.

Our intent is to expand the course from the current 3 hours per week (1.5 hour on Monday and Wednesday) to 4 hours per week (1.5 hours on Monday and Wednesday plus 1 hour on Friday). Muscle structure and Function, Myasthenia gravis and Sarcopenia; Central Nervous System, (Synaptic Transmission, Sensory System, Autonomic Nervous System, CNS circuits, Motor System, Neurodegenerative Diseases, Paraplegia and Nerve Compression); Cardiovascular Physiology (Regulation of Pressure and flow; Circulation, Cardiac Cycle, Electrophysiology, Cardiac Function, Control of Cardiovascular function, Hypertension); Hemorragy, Cardiac Hypertrophy and Fibrillation; Respiration Physiology (Gas Transport and Exchange, Control of Breathing, Acid/base regulation, Cor Pulmonaris and Cystic Fibrosis, Sleeping apnea and Emphysema); Renal Physiology (Glomerular Filtration, Tubular Function/transport, Glomerulonephritis, Tubulopaties); Gastro-Intestinal Physiology (Gastric motility, gastric function, pancreas and bile function, digestion and absorption, Liver Physiology; Pancreatitis, Liver Disease and cirrhosis); Endocrine Physiology (Thyroid, Adrenal glands, endocrine pancreas, Parathyroid, calcium sensing receptor, Cushing and diabetes, Reproductive hormones, eclampsia); Integrative Physiology (Response to exercise, fasting and feeding, aging). For all the classes, the students will receive a series of learning objectives by the instructor to help the students address and focus their attention to the key aspects of the organ physiology (and physiopathology). The evaluation of the students will continue to be based upon the students' participation in class (60% of the grade) complemented by a mid-term and a final exam (each one accounting for 20% of the final grade). 

Principles of Pharmacology introduces the basic principles that underlie all of Pharmacology. The first half of the course introduces, both conceptually and quantitatively, drug absorption, distribution, elimination and metabolism (pharmacokinetics) and general drug receptor theory and mechanism of action (pharmacodynamics). Genetic variation in response to drugs (pharmacogenetics) is integrated into these basic principles. The second half of the course covers selected drug classes chosen to illustrate these principles. Small group/recitation sessions use case histories to reinforce presentation of principles and to discuss public perceptions of therapeutic drug use. Graduate students will be expected to critically evaluate articles from the literature and participate in a separate weekly discussion session. Recommended preparation for PHRM 409: Undergraduate degree in science or permission of instructor.