Housing Deterioration Contributes to Elevated Lead Levels and Lower Kindergarten Readiness Scores in Cleveland – Briefly Stated
A retrospective analysis of the housing histories of more 13,000 entering kindergartners in 2007-10 in Cleveland demonstrates the role that housing plays in early childhood development. Children who spent more time living in or near properties that had signs of deterioration and disinvestment were more likely to have elevated lead levels and to have low scores on a kindergarten readiness assessment. Nearly 40 percent of the entering kindergartners tested above the public health threshold for lead exposure (i.e. blood lead level >5mg/DL). Each year from birth to kindergarten approximately one-third of the children spent time either in or near properties that were in poor condition or showed signs of disinvestment.
Effects of Foster Care and Juvenile Justice Involvement on Early Adult Outcomes – Policy Research Brief
The transition to adulthood can be challenging for many individuals, but youth that have been involved with various public systems face additional hurdles in completing their education, finding employment and managing their everyday lives. Using linked administrative data from multiple agencies, this policy brief looks at what is happening to Cleveland’s youth from 9th grade until age 21 and how involvement in the child welfare and juvenile justice systems affect their success. We find that system-involved youth are at elevated risk compared to their noninvolved peers for poor high school performance and attendance, unemployment, homelessness and incarceration in local jail. This study begins to quantify the various points at which Cleveland youth are touched by public systems along their paths toward adulthood. This type of information can be used to estimate potential savings in public spending and human suffering that might be achieved through targeted prevention programs with this population.
This presentation summarizes the Discerning Healthy Start Impact on Birth Outcomes using Propensity Score Matching Methods.Overall, the outcome evaluation found that Women who participate in MomsFirst have statistically significantly better birth outcomes than they would have had, had they not participated.
The number of children who are lead poisoned in any given year has been steadily declining; however, as illustrated by this poster, these point-in-time incidence data should be interpreted with caution as longitudinal data demonstrate many more children are lead poisoned throughout the early childhood period.
Birth outcomes are important early indicators of individual and community well-being, particularly a newborn’s weight at birth and the time of gestational delivery. Adverse outcomes such as low birth weight and premature delivery present common threats to a child’s development, and have been shown to increase a child’s risk for a variety of conditions, ranging from cognitive impairment to attention-deficit disorder to asthma.
Child maltreatment includes physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, and neglect of a child under the age of 18 by a person in a custodial role. The long-term outcomes of child maltreatment are persistent and pervasive, affecting the physical, emotional, behavioral, and cognitive domains of an individual’s life. Young children, especially infants, are particularly vulnerable to child maltreatment, demonstrating victimization rates two to three times higher than older children.
Family income is one of the strongest predictors of child well-being. The effects of poverty on early childhood development are well documented, including higher rates of health and cognitive impairments, and emotional and behavioral difficulties. Since 2000, poverty rates among children in Cuyahoga County increased by nearly 40%. Increases in Cuyahoga County and the state of Ohio are higher than the national increase of 32% since 2000.
According to a report from the U.S. Census, nationally, young children spend an average of 32 hours a week in care settings. This is a substantial amount of time during a critical period of brain development, making access to quality care essential. Cuyahoga County has a broad and diverse system of early care and education settings, with a substantial number of child care providers meeting objective quality standards.
Access to health care is fundamental to the health of young children, but children without health insurance often do not have access to regular care. Uninsured children have lower immunization rates, are less likely to have common conditions and emergencies attended to, and have more unmet mental health and chronic health conditions.
Among environmental risks, lead exposure is perhaps the most serious threat to a child’s development. Adverse health effects of lead include damage to the brain and nervous system, slowed development, learning and behavior problems, and hearing and speech problems. Cognitive deficits in math, reading, nonverbal reasoning, and short-term memory have been associated with blood lead concentrations below the 5.0 μg/dL standard.
A lack of kindergarten readiness may significantly hinder a child’s educational trajectory. In recognition of the importance of kindergarten readiness, Invest in Children (IIC) has sought to improve the quality of early childhood education in Cuyahoga County. Since 2005, public schools in the State of Ohio have used the State-mandated Kindergarten Readiness Assessment Literacy (KRA-L) to measure kindergarten readiness.
Serious emotional and behavioral concerns in early childhood affect between 9-14% of the general population of children and as much as 24% of low-income children. Unfortunately, emergent mental health concerns among toddlers and preschoolers often go unidentified and untreated. Long-term research has shown untreated mental health issues in early childhood negatively impact a child’s health, social-emotional functioning, and academic success later in life.
Family child care is a home-based service where a caregiver provides child care in his or her home, and it is a widely used type of care for infants, toddlers, and preschoolers in the United States. The Family Child Care Homes (FCCH) initiative sought to improve the quality of the FCCH system in Cuyahoga County. The FCCH initiative supported the development of high quality FCCHs in the county as a part of creating an early care and education system that will prepare children for school and later life.
The NBHV program offers a single in-home visit by a registered nurse to high risk parents under 200% of the federal poverty threshold. This visit offers parents useful information about existing community services and resources, provides parents with an opportunity to ask questions regarding their infant’s health needs, and identifies families or infants in need of greater assistance.
A core emphasis of the UPK pilot is to invest in the quality of care in participating sites to enhance the child outcomes for the children in care. This report focuses on the analysis of data on the quality of the care provided in UPK sites, data on observations and assessments of a sample of 200 children, and data on UPK children who entered kindergarten in fall 2008 with a school readiness score.
This report reviews data collected by the UPK pilot as part of the evaluation of the program over the first five years. A key focus of the UPK pilot is to enhance child development during the prekindergarten years. The effects of the UPK pilot can be measured by analyzing collected data on child development while in a UPK program and the data on UPK children who entered kindergarten in CMSD with a school readiness score.
This policy brief examines the development of youth in Cleveland from 9th grade until age 21 and how involvement in the child welfare and juvenile justice systems affect their success. System-involved youth are at elevated risk compared to their non-involved peers for poor high school performance and attendance, unemployment, homelessness and incarceration in local jail. This study aims to pinpoint the level of risk and explore factors that distinguish youth who do well from those who do not.
This presentation provides an overview of the challenges and unique opportunities presented by integrating large amounts of data from various sources. An integrated child data system can be used to identify trends, develop programs, and implement supports for young children and their families. The CHILD system is expanding to include data related to older children and adolescents to better meet the needs of these children as they grow up.