Air and Water Pollution
The air we breathe and water we drink affects our health in ways we don’t actively think about. Toxins inhaled or ingested can contribute directly towards ailments like bronchitis and heavy metal poisoning. Pollutants in the environment can also create conditions favorable for the propagation of disease-transmitting organisms, and also affect weather patterns negatively affecting issues like crop yield and air quality. Each of these issues impacts our health from multiple angles. To learn more, explore some subtopics below.
Air pollution refers to the reduction in the cleanliness of air quality. This can be caused by the release of chemicals into the air—burning gasoline and practicing deforestation can cause this. Air pollution can affect respiratory health, causing issues like asthma and bronchitis.
- Center for Disease Control (CDC): Air Pollution & Respiratory Health provides information on the impact of air pollution on respiratory health.
- World Health Organization (WHO): Air Pollution provides information on different types of air pollution and how they impact health.
Climate change refers to changes in the standard weather patterns of a region or city over a long period of time. This could range from changes in temperature to water currents, affecting issues like crop yields and air quality. These issues have significant direct and indirect impact on individual and population health (i.e. food, disease, water).
- Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): Impact of Climate Change on Health provides information on the impact of air pollution on respiratory health.
- Cuyahoga County Climate Action Plan: A detailed plan of how Cuyahoga County plans to address climate change focusing on five areas: Energy; Land Use; Transportation; Ecosystem and Health. Each section includes data, solutions, resources and a call to action.
- Cleveland Climate Action Plan: Led by the Office of Sustainability for the city of Cleveland, this plan outlines objectives within the following impact areas: Energy Efficiency & Green Building, Clean Energy, Sustainable Transportation, Clean Water & Vibrant Green Spaces, More Local Food, Less Waste and Cross-Cutting Priorities.
Disease-transmitting organisms—also known as vectors—refer to organisms that can transmit pathogens from one infected individual (person or animal) to another. These organisms can propagate serious diseases and are often found in tropical type environments. Vector control is the ability to control these types of organisms and their capacity to transmit disease.
- CDC: Zika Virus details current information pertaining to the ZIKA virus.
Health-promoting environments refers to the creation of spaces that provide individuals with the resources to live healthy lifestyles. These could range from increasing access to fresh and affordable produce and safe housing to implementing a clean environment and tobacco-free policies. For more information visit the Tasmanian Government’s Department of Health and Human Services website on supportive environments.
- Built Environment and Health—part of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF)—was established in order to create healthy communities and expanding health coverage, working towards the creation of health equity.
- CDC: Healthy Places is dedicated to providing information regarding healthy environments.
- GreenCityBlueLake Cleveland Museum of Natural History (CMNH)—it is the sustainability center of the Cleveland Museum of Natural History (CMNH). The center’s goal is to harmonize metropolitan areas with nature in order to create healthy environments. The center has events and activities for individuals to engage in.
Water pollution refers to the reduction in the cleanliness of water, and our and other organism's ability to consume and live in it. This can be caused by the release of chemicals into the water-oil spills, improper chemical disposal, etc. Water pollution can the health of a number of bodily systems, causing issues like dysentery, cancer, and infertility.
- CDC: Clean Water provides information of clean water drinking, and issues surrounding it on the federal and local levels.
- Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): Ground Water & Drinking Water provides information on the issues surrounding water and our ability to safely consume it.
- National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS): Water Pollution—a division of the National Institutes of Health (NIH)—provides information on studies and initiatives that address issues surrounding water pollution.
Food and Nutrition
From farm to table there are multiple environmental components that impact the quality of our food. These pressures, ranging from farming techniques to food handling materials and methods, can have a dramatic impact on an individual's and community's health. In addition, improper waste disposal processes can lead to issues like oil spills and sewage adversely impacting the food systems, enabling the propagation of disease and harming our health, and affecting the nutritional quality of our food. To learn more, explore some subtopics below.
Food safety refers to handling and usage of food in a safe manner. Improper food handling can result in sickness like salmonella poisoning. Sanitation refers to the ability to properly handle and dispose of waste materials ranging from industrial waste management to sewer infrastructure and clean water—drawing an overlap with water pollution.
- CDC: Clean Water provides information of clean water drinking, and issues surrounding it on the federal and local level.
- CDC: Sanitation & Hygiene provides information on the impact of sanitation and hygiene on human health
- Food Safety is a government website dedicated to promoting food safety. It provides information on how to cook safely, as well as how to keep food safe and avoid issues like food poisoning.
Nutrition is a critical issue for environmental health. Our ability to consume the correct food in appropriate quantities is paramount in terms of maintaining our health.
- CDC: Healthy Food Environment is a CDC website dedicated toward the relationship between food, health and environment.
- United States Department of Department of Agriculture (USDA) Dietary Guidelines is a website dedicated to educating individuals about eating healthy.
- USDA: Food & Nutrition Information Center is a website that provides general information on nutrition. The site provides resources for individuals ranging from educators to consumers.
- USDA: Choose MyPlate is a USDA website dedicated to educating individuals about what foods to eat and the appropriate quantities to consume them in.
Toxicology refers to how environmental exposures can impact human health, such as oil spills. It also refers to things that individuals need to avoid in the environment like BPA free water bottles.
- Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry (ASTDCR) is a government website that provides information on toxic substances, with sections on how they relate to public health.
From mining minerals to constructing buildings the environment, the environment and cancer are intrinsically linked. However, this linkage extends outside of the “built” environment to those we create for ourselves, including the nutritional, exercise, and behavioral decisions we make. To learn more, explore some subtopics below.
Cancer Prevention can take place in a variety of different areas. One way this can take place is by altering our relationship with physical environment, this can range from using safer materials for product manufacturing to changing the way we handle and dispose of materials. Another way is to improve lifestyle and well-being by adopting healthier habits such as consuming safe and nutritious foods. By understanding what causes and increases the risk for cancers, individuals and organizations can take measures to help prevent cancer occurrence.
- National Cancer Institute (NCI): Cancer Causes & Prevention—a division of the National Institutes of Health (NIH)—provides an overview on cancer prevention, causes, and risk factors.
- Cancer Council Australia: Environmental Causes & Risks is an NGO website that details various environmental causes and risk factors for cancer.
- NIEHS: Cancer provides information on studies and initiatives that address the relationship between the environment and cancer.
- CDC: Factors That Contribute to Health Disparities in Cancer provides information on how socioeconomic issues can impact cancer risk & incidences.
- Mayo Clinic: Breast Cancer Prevention provides information on how to reduce the risk of developing breast cancer.
- NCI: Obesity and Cancer details the relationship between obesity and cancer.
HPV has been associated with cancer, and unhealthy environments can increase the likelihood of receiving it.
- CDC: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination & Cancer Prevention provides information on the HPV and cancer relationship and how vaccination can reduce cancer risk.