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ALLEN, PETER (1 July 1787-1 Sept. 1864), was a prominent doctor in the WESTERN RESERVE. Born in Norwich, Conn., he obtained a preliminary education at the Norwich Academy where he later taught for 2 years. He received his medical education under Dr. Phineas Tracy in Norwich. In 1838 he received an honorary degree from Jefferson College.

The ALLIANCE OF POLES OF AMERICA was established in Cleveland on 22 Sept. 1895 by 68 dissatisfied members of Group 143 of the Polish National Alliance (PNA), who disagreed with the PNA's decision to admit as members POLES who were not Catholic (see CATHOLICS, ROMAN).

The ALLIANCE OF TRANSYLVANIAN SAXONS, organized on 1 May 1895 in Cleveland as the Transylvanian Saxon Sick Benefit Society, is a national fraternal society with headquarters and 4 branches in Cleveland. Created by 27 men, George Sift, a machinist, served as the first president.

ALLYNE, EDMUND E. (25 Dec. 1874-18 Aug. 1961) prominent in the foundry industry and in automotive and refrigeration development, was born in Cleveland, the son of Joseph H. and Anna M. (Wightman) Allyne and attended public schools here. After five years with the Ohio National Guard 1893-98, he organized and operated Allyne Bros. foundry 1900-09, selling it in order to form the Aluminum Castings Co.

The ALSBACHER PARTY was a group of Jews from Unsleben, Bavaria, who came to Cleveland in 1839 and were instrumental in establishing a viable Jewish community in the city. The party brought with it an ethical testament of the Jewish values to guide the formation of the new community.

ALTA HOUSE, one of the city's oldest SETTLEMENT HOUSES, was established in 1895 as a day nursery for working Italian immigrant women in LITTLE ITALY.

The ALTENHEIM was founded in 1886 (incorporated 1887) by the Westseite Deutscher Frauen Verein (Westside German Ladies Society) for the care of elderly people of German descent in the Cleveland area. The society began in 1876 to sponsor women entering the German Teachers Seminary in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and in 1880 joined with a similar group on the city's east side and opened a needlework school.

ALTERNATIVE SCHOOLS. The alternative-schools movement began in the 1960s, when parents began to demand choices in the schooling of their children. Specifically, alternative schools were institutions, often not state-accredited, serving the traditional school population but privately controlled and supported because the traditional systems were not meeting the needs. Cleveland has had several alternative schools. In 1968 Rev.

The ALUMINUM COMPANY OF AMERICA (Alcoa) was founded in 1888 as the Pittsburgh Reduction Co., and since 1900 has had a branch in Cleveland, locating the headquarters of its forging division here in 1977. Alcoa established a sales office in Cleveland's Cuyahoga Bldg. in 1900; it moved to the Garfield Bldg. in 1907, the same year the company changed its name to the Aluminum Co. of America.

AM INTERNATIONAL, INC., formerly Addressograph Multigraph Corp., was organized on 5 May 1931 by the merger of the Addressograph Intl. Corp. and the American Multigraph Co. Addressograph Intl., an Illinois firm, had been formed in 1893 to manufacture an envelope-addressing service. The American Multigraph Co. was organized in Cleveland by Harry C. Gammeter, who invented a machine to duplicate letters, and Henry C.

The AMALGAMATED CLOTHING AND TEXTILE WORKERS UNION was organized nationally in 1914 as the independent Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America (ACWA). An early supporter of industrial unionism, the ACWA scored some initial success when it came to Cleveland in the 1910s, but organizing was hindered by a recession in the industry in the 1920s.

The AMASA STONE CHAPEL on the CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIV. campus was erected by Mrs. John Hay and Mrs. Samuel Mather (see FLORA STONE MATHER) as a memorial to their father, AMASA STONE, in 1911.

The AMASA STONE HOUSE, dedicated on July 14, 1877 as the Home for Aged Women, served as an independent home for "Protestant Gentlewomen" sixty years of age and older, until merging with the A. M. MCGREGOR HOME in 1987.

AMBLER HEIGHTS is located in the southwest corner of CLEVELAND HTS., OH. The boundaries include Cedar Glen Rd. (north), S. Overlook Rd. (east), Martin Luther King, Jr., Blvd. and N. Park Blvd. (south), and Ambleside Rd. and Martin Luther King, Jr., Blvd. (west). Streets in Ambler Hts. include Chestnut Hills, Denton, Devonshire, Elandon, and Harcourt roads.

AMBLER, HENRY LOVEJOY (10 Sept. 1843-14 June 1924) earned distinction as a practitioner, teacher, and historian of dentistry. Born in Medina, he received a M.S. from Hillsdale College in Michigan before graduating from the Ohio College of Dental Surgery in Cincinnati and gaining the M.D. from Cleveland's Western College of Homeopathic Medicine in 1868.

AMBLER, NATHAN HARDY (1823-1888), dentist in California and Ohio and purveyor of lucrative real estate deals, bought property on the Cleveland city limits and resold it as the city pushed outward. A millionaire, he once owned much of AMBLER HEIGHTS.

AMBULANCE SERVICES began in Cleveland, as in most other U.S. cities, following the Civil War. City Hospital, Lakeside Hospital, HURON RD. HOSPITAL, and ST. ALEXIS HOSPITAL all operated ambulances in the late 19th century. Beginning in the 1880s, the wealthy preferred private ambulances.

The AMERICAN AND CANADIAN SPORT, TRAVEL, AND OUTDOOR SHOW, an annual event in Cleveland, was first held in 1927 at the PUBLIC AUDITORIUM and ran until 1930, when it was discontinued due to the Depression. Commonly referred to as the Sportman's Show, it resumed in 1937 and has taken place every year since then. The original event was the idea of Clevelanders Aaron W.

The AMERICAN AUTOMATIC VENDING CO., which sold goods through vending machines, was founded in 1933 by Louis and Miriam (Gometz) Golden as the Golden Tobacco Co. The firm's name was changed to the Ace Cigarette Service Co. about 1936 and began significant growth with the rise of electric vending machines. By 1946 it had become one of the nation's largest cigarette vendors.

The AMERICAN BOX CO., founded in 1901, grew to become one of the nation's top 3 box manufacturers before it moved out of Cleveland in 1962. American Box was founded by John P. Kubes, who guided the company until illness forced him to resign as president in Nov. 1944, shortly before his death. A native of Bohemia, Kubes came to the U.S.

The AMERICAN CHICLE CO., one of the world's leading chewing-gum manufacturers as a subsidiary of the Warner-Lambert Co., was established in New York by Cleveland chewing-gum manufacturer WM. J. WHITE, who merged his company with another Cleveland chewing-gum maker, the Beeman Chemical Co. Working as a confectioner from his Lorain Ave.

The AMERICAN ECONOMIC FOUNDATION was organized in Cleveland by Fred G. Clark in 1939 to promote the libertarian ideals of a free market and limited government. Clark moved the foundation to New York City in the 1940s, where it continued its successful education program to improve economic literacy and to demonstrate the virtues of the capitalist system in the U.S.

AMERICAN GREETINGS CORP. began as a one-man card-jobbing business founded in 1906 by JACOB SAPIRSTEIN, a recent immigrant and son of a Polish rabbi. By 1993 it was the world's largest publicly owned manufacturer and distributor of greeting cards, with $1.6 billion in sales and a net income of $112 million. In the 1930s the Sapirstein Greeting Card Co.

The AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION, NORTHEAST OHIO AFFILIATE, INC., is a nonprofit, voluntary health organization working to reduce heart disease, stroke, and related disorders. Supported by private contributions, the association funds medical research, professional and public education, and community programs. A group of eminent cardiologists founded the national association in 1924 as a professional society.

AMERICAN INDIANS. The tiny Indian community of early 20th-century Cleveland was largely a transient one. (For previous Indian residents of the WESTERN RESERVE area, see PREHISTORIC INHABITANTS.) Census statistics show only 2 Indians resident in the city in 1900; 48 in 1910; and 34 in 1920.

The AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS, CLEVELAND CHAPTER, was established in the late 19th century. According to one source, it was organized on 7 Apr. 1887 from an earlier CLEVELAND ARCHITECTURAL CLUB. The existing chapter uses 1890 as its founding date. Throughout its existence, the chapter has been dedicated to architectural improvement in the city.

The AMERICAN LUNG ASSOCIATION OF NORTHERN OHIO, formerly known as the Northern Ohio Lung Association, was founded in 1904 and formally organized on March 3, 1905 as the Anti-Tuberculosis League, which fought tuberculosis (TB) before expanding its work in the 1960s to other respiratory diseases. With Dr. John H.

AMERICAN MONARCH, a manufacturer of screws, bolts, pins, and rivets, was formed by a merger of 2 Cleveland companies, Monarch Cap & Screw and American Rivet & Mfg. Monarch Cap & Screw was founded in 1922 as the Cleveland Brake Co. by Frank J. Andel, a young toolmaker from Czechoslovakia. Andel left another company he had founded, the Viaduct Tool & Machine Co.

The AMERICAN MUTUAL LIFE ASSN., a fraternal insurance society established on 11 November 1910 as Slovenska Dobrodelna Zveza (Slovenian Mutual Benefit Assn.), in 1994 was the largest Slovenian-American organization in Ohio. By 1910 over a dozen Slovenian fraternal benefit societies operated in the city. All were small, independent lodges, except for a handful affiliated with national organizations based in other states.

The AMERICAN POSTAL WORKERS UNION, CLEVELAND AREA LOCAL, (APWU), the largest major postal union active in the city in 1995, represented an amalgamation of earlier unions established for specific groups of postal employees. The APWU, with over 2,800 members in Cleveland, was created in 1971 after the Postal Reorganization Act of 1970 established the U.S. Postal Service as an independent government agency.

The AMERICAN RED CROSS, CLEVELAND CHAPTER, was organized by SAMUEL MATHER in 1905 to provide volunteer aid to the army and navy, to act as a channel of communication between families and members of the armed forces, and to carry on a system of disaster relief. The local chapter directly linked to the national organization in 1910.

The AMERICAN SAVINGS BANK, begun as the German-American Savings Bank to meet the needs of produce merchants, was incorporated in 1887 with offices at 220 Ontario St. Later, when the bank expanded into commercial fields, it retained much of its original trade and became noted for its large dividends to stockholders.

The AMERICAN SHIP BUILDING CO., a major designer and builder of vessels for Great Lakes shipping, was incorporated in New Jersey 16 Mar. 1899—a consolidation of 3 Cleveland firms: the Cleveland Ship Building Co., the Ship Owner's Dry Dock Co., the Globe Iron Works, and 5 other companies in the Great Lakes region.

The AMERICAN SOCIALIST CONFERENCE was held in Cleveland 28-30 Nov. 1958 to study and discuss the need for socialism in America. One hundred and forty independent socialists and members from various labor unions and universities convened at the Tudor Arms Hotel under chairman Eric J. Reinthaler of Willowick, OH.



The AMERICAN WOMEN'S SUFFRAGE ASSN. convention in Cleveland, on November 24-25, 1869, signalled a schism in the national WOMEN's suffrage movement that lasted over twenty years. This national organization of state women's suffrage associations formed as a less radical alternative to the National Woman Suffrage Association, founded earlier the same year by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony.

AMERICANIZATION. The heavy influx of immigrants into cities such as Cleveland before and after the Civil War tested the belief that America could easily assimilate foreign newcomers. Hector Crevecoeur, an 18th-century French writer, had popularized the image of America as a mix of races and nationalities blending into and forming a new culture.


AMERICKE DELNICKE LISTY (American Labor News), once the only Czech-language socialist weekly in the country, evolved in 1908 out of a mimeographed weekly founded by Karel Pintner. Located in Cleveland's Czech neighborhood on "Old Broadway," it was edited early in its career by JOSEPH MARTINEK and subsequently by Vaclav H. Matousek.

AMERISKA DOMOVINA (American Home), traces its lineage back to the origins of the city's SLOVENE press. It was preceded by Narodna Beseda, a semimonthly established 11 Feb. 1899 and later renamed Nova Domovina. Although that venture went out of business on 25 Apr.

AMERITECH (AMERICAN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES CORP.) is the Chicago-based holding company founded in 1983 to receive all shares of 5 telephone companies: Illinois Bell, Indiana Bell, Michigan Bell, Wisconsin Bell, and Ohio Bell from the divestiture of AT&T.

AMERITRUST, the largest bank in the midwest at one time, was established in 1894 as the Cleveland Trust Co. with $500,000 capital and John G. W. Cowles as its first president. In 1903 Cleveland Trust merged with the Western Reserve Trust Co., and kept their offices open as branches. At that time, Calvary Morris succeeded Cowles. Having outgrown a series of rented offices by 1905, the bank built a new headquarters bldg. at E.

AMES, LYDIA MAY (1863-October 1, 1946) was a distinguished landscape painter and one of Cleveland's first woman artists. Born in NEWBURGH, she was the daughter of Ashley Ames, who operated a livery service.

AMUSEMENT PARKS. The amusement park, a concept that originated in Europe, debuted in the U.S. at Coney Island, Brooklyn, NY. The island began as a summer resort for the wealthy of New York City; gradually the middle and working classes expropriated it and its expanding attractions for their use and entertainment. It became the prototype for amusement parks throughout the U.S.

The ANCIENT ORDER OF HIBERNIANS is an Irish and Irish-American organization that traces its roots back to the organization of the Defenders in Ireland in 1565 to protect Roman Catholic priests (see CATHOLICS, ROMAN) and the Church against English persecution. Branches organized in the U.S. beginning in 1836 and reportedly in the 1850s in Cleveland.

ANDERSON, ERNIE (12 November 1923 - 6 February 1997) was a nationally known television announcer, most familiar to network audiences as the voice of ABC-TV, and to Cleveland audiences as the late night horror-movie host, Ghoulardi, on WJW-TV from 1963 until 1966.