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The BALDWIN BIRD RESEARCH LABORATORY, a pioneering ornithological research facility, was established in 1914 by SAMUEL PRENTISS BALDWIN at his estate in GATES MILLS.

BALDWIN RESERVOIR of the Baldwin Filtration Plant and Fairmount Pumping Station is believed to be one of the largest covered reservoirs in the world. Completed in 1925 to store the treated water from the filtration plant before distribution to the service area, the underground clearwater reservoir is an engineering marvel. It is 500' wide, 1,000' long, and 35' deep and has a capacity of 135 million gallons.

BALDWIN, CHARLES CANDEE (2 Dec. 1834-2 Feb. 1895), was a corporate lawyer, circuit judge, and founder of the WESTERN RESERVE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. Born in Middletown, Conn., to Seymour Wesley and Mary (Candee) Baldwin, he and his family moved to Elyria, but returned to Connecticut in 1847.

BALDWIN, LILLIAN LUVERNE (1888-September 11, 1960) served the CLEVELAND PUBLIC SCHOOLS for a quarter-century as supervisor of music appreciation. She was born in Marion, Indiana, and received her undergraduate education at Glendale College.

BALDWIN, NORMAN C. (29 July 1802-12 June 1887), a prominent businessman and politician in Cleveland and OHIO CITY during the mid-1800s, was born in Goshen, Conn., to Stephen and Susannah (Adams) Baldwin. He came to Hudson at 15 and opened a general store there. His experience as a merchant led him, in 1829, to form a partnership with Noble H.

BALDWIN, SAMUEL S. (ca. 1776-12 July 1822), was an early Cleveland and Cuyahoga County public official. Born in Ridgefield, Conn., to Samuel and Hannah (Northrup) Baldwin, he moved to a farm in NEWBURGH in 1808 and dabbled in real estate with LEONARD CASE. Baldwin's short public career revolved around politics.

BALDWIN-WALLACE UNIVERSITY (formerly Baldwin-Wallace College) is a liberal-arts university related to the United Methodist church. Located in BEREA, the college's campus extends from Eastland Rd. to Front St., and from E. 5th Ave. to Center St. In 1995 the total plant consisted of 54 buildings on 56 acres. The roots of the college date back to Mar.

BALDWlN, JOHN (ca. 13 Oct. 1799-ca 28 Dec. 1884) was a successful businessman and educator who used his wealth to promote righteous and intellectual living. Baldwin was born in North Branford, Connecticut, the son of Joseph and Rosanna (Meloy) Baldwin. Although largely self-taught, he acquired enough academic training to hold several teaching positions.

BALKAN IMMIGRANTS. Bulgarians, Albanians, and Montenegrins constitute the principal Balkan groups in Cleveland. The major period of Balkan immigration to the U.S. occurred from 1880-1924, prompted by economic stress and political changes in the Balkan countries.

BALL PARK MUSTARD. See JOSEPH BERTMAN INC.


BALL, ERNEST R. (22 July 1878-3 May 1927), composed many popular songs from 1904-27. Born in Cleveland to Anna (Kocker) and Ernest Adelbert Ball, he studied at the Cleveland Conservatory before moving to New York where he became a vaudeville pianist and traveled throughout the U.S. Later, Litmark Music Publishing House hired him as a demonstrator and staff composer.

BALL, WEBB C. (6 Oct. 1846-6 March 1922) regulated the watches of most of the nation's railroads as a sideline of his Cleveland jewelry business. Born on a farm in Knox County, O., he was the son of Aaron and Sidney Ann Clay Ball. He began his jewelry apprenticeship in 1869 in Fredericktown, O., and joined the Deuber Watch Case Co. of Cincinnati in 1874.

BALL, WEBB C. CO. See WEBB C. BALL CO.


The BALTIMORE & OHIO RAILROAD, which owned several railroads serving the Cleveland area, was acquired by the CHESAPEAKE & OHIO in 1962, and the merged railroad, renamed the Chessie System, became part of the CSX CORP. in 1980. The Baltimore & Ohio was chartered in Maryland on 28 Feb.

BALTO was the sled dog who became a national hero, symbolizing rescue efforts to get supplies of diphtheria antitoxin serum to Nome, Alaska. When diphtheria threatened Nome in Jan. 1925, the city found itself without a supply of antitoxin and, almost completely isolated by the arctic winter, the only means of travel being by dog-sled over the frozen tundra.

BANCOHIO NATIONAL BANK was a major banking presence in the Cleveland area for more than a decade after its acquisition of Capital Natl. Bank. Capital Natl. was incorporated by Alex and Paul Wintner in 1929 as a state bank with $125,000 capital. Located at 1011 Huron Rd., Capital pioneered in mortgage loans guaranteed by the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) under the New Deal. By 1946 control of Capital Natl.

BANDLOW, ROBERT (4 June 1852-29 Jan. 1911) was an organizer for the Central Labor Union, predecessor to the CLEVELAND FED. OF LABOR, and for many years the business editor of the CLEVELAND CITIZEN. Born in Germany to Henry and Caroline Bandlow, the family immigrated to Cleveland in 1854.

BANDS. Paid professional instrumental groups of any size, but restricted to woodwinds, brasses, and percussion, bands primarily played outdoor concerts and provided march music for parades. Until ca. 1840, Cleveland had virtually no organized bands that could qualify as professional.

BANG, EDWARD F. "ED" (28 Apr. 1880-27 Apr. 1968) was sports editor of the CLEVELAND NEWS for 53 years. Born in Sandusky, Ohio, to Charles and Rose Bang, he worked at the Sandusky Register and then in Youngstown before he was hired by the News. He became sports editor in 1907. Bang was influential on the local and national sports scene.

BANK ONE CLEVELAND NA was created when the Columbus-based Banc One Corp. took over the former Euclid Natl. Bank (ENB). Euclid Natl. began in 1953 as the Euclid Savings Assn. with $45 million in assets and was converted to a national bank in 1966, changing its name to Euclid Natl. Bank. In 1975 ENB became a subsidiary of the Winters Natl.

BANKING. The history of banking in Cleveland is closely linked to the city's economic growth and to national economic history.

BANKS AND SAVINGS & LOANS. During the canal era Cleveland was an intermediary center of trade and commerce, and as the network of railroads displaced canals as a more reliable form of transport, the city became an industrial center.

Year
1890  

Number of Banks

Savings & loans,

& Trust Companies

The BANKS-BALDWIN LAW PUBLISHING CO., located in Cleveland since 1932, is the oldest law publishing house in the U.S. David Banks established the firm of Gould & Banks in New York in 1804 in order to publish law books that would be less expensive than those imported from England. After Banks's death in 1871, his sons continued the business as Banks & Bros., but in 1880 two sons divided the company. David Banks, Jr.

The BAPTIST BROTHERHOOD was active in Progressive Era moral reform efforts, with its most substantial work directed toward stopping Sunday liquor sales. In 1911 a mass meeting of Baptists at the Euclid Ave. Baptist Church decided to wage an all-out war against drinking and vice. During that year over 200 Brothers visited 1630 of the 1950 saloons in Cleveland and found 1534 of them open on Sunday Sabbath.

BAPTIST HOME OF OHIO. See OLD AGE/NURSING HOMES.


BAPTISTS. The Baptists of Cleveland come from 2 distinct historical traditions, both ultimately derived from English Baptists and, before them, from the Anabaptist groups of the Continent. Cleveland's white Baptists developed fairly directly from the English tradition, as believers brought the religion from England to New England, and then to western settlements such as Cleveland.

BARBER, GERSHOM M. (2 Oct. 1823-20 July 1903), was an educator, lawyer, and judge who also served in the CIVIL WAR. Born in Groton, N.Y., to Phineas and Orpha Barber, he came to Berlin Twp., Ohio with his family at age 7.

BARBER, JOSIAH (1771-10 Dec. 1842), the first mayor of OHIO CITY and son of Capt. Stephen and Alice (Cass) Barber, was a prime mover in west side residential, commercial, and industrial development.

BARDONS & OLIVER, INC., is one of the chief machine-tool firms in Cleveland. Two former Warner & Swasey officials, Geo. Bardons and John Oliver, founded the firm in 1891 at 3 Water (W. 9th) St. Originally it manufactured bicycle hubs and the machines to make them; eventually it became a major manufacturer of turret lathes and parts, special machinery, and pipe and tube mill equipment.

BARDOUN, FRANK J. (3 Oct. 1905-3 Dec. 1988) was prominently involved in the affairs of Cleveland's CZECHS for more than half a century. A native Clevelander, the son of Louis and Mary Plantner Bardoun, he was a graduate of EAST TECHNICAL HIGH SCHOOL.

BARKER OFFICE SUPPLY CO., for many years known as S. Barker & Sons Co., is the oldest office-supply house in Cleveland. On 7 June 1871, Samuel Barker opened a small printing business in a room on Union Ln., with 2 small presses, a small steam engine, a hand cutter, and stationery stock. Within a few years it moved into the Atwater Bldg. on the Old Viaduct.

BARNARD, MAXWELL ("MAX") VOSPER (6 April 1884-3 Feb. 1978) became known through his primitive artwork as the "Grandpa Moses" of CHAGRIN FALLS. Born in Auburn Twp., Geauga County, he was the son of Jay and Lena Barnard and grandson of one of the early settlers of Chagrin Falls.

BARNETT, JAMES (21 June 1821-13 Jan. 1911), a businessman, politician, soldier, and philanthropist, organized many charities. Born in Cherry Valley, N.Y., to Melancthon and Mary (Clark), the family moved to Cleveland in 1825.

BARNUM, FRANK SEYMOUR (25 Nov. 1850-17 Dec. 1927) was an architect who designed and supervised the construction of over 75 Cleveland public school buildings, and was among the first architects to utilize modern building techniques in his designs.

BARR, JOHN (26 Jan. 1804-24 Jan. 1875) Cleveland's first magistrate and local historian, was born in Hartford, Trumbull County, the son of Thomas and Suzanna Barr. The Barr family came to Euclid Township in 1810 when Thomas Barr was appointed the first pastor of the FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF EAST CLEVELAND.

BARRICELLI, GIOVANNI ALFONSO (22 Feb. 1873-16 Apr. 1934) was a cardiopulmonary specialist but is best known as one of the early leaders of the Italian community in Cleveland. Born in Benevento, Italy, to Pietro and Lucia (Cangelicri) Barricelli, he attended the University of Naples, completing courses in physics and chemistry.

BARRY, FRANK T. (9 Feb. 1881-31 Jan. 1956), a minister and social worker, founded and directed Woodland Ctr. Neighborhood House for over 30 years. Born in Lincoln, Nebr., and growing up in Topeka, Kans., he graduated from Lake Forest College, Lake Forest, Ill. (1905); from McCormick Theological Seminary, Chicago, (1908); and from Northwestern University (1912).

BARTON, THOMAS C. (b. 1831- ), a U.S. Navy seaman who received the Congressional Medal of Honor during the CIVIL WAR, was born in Cleveland. Barton was on board the USS Hunchback when it attempted to rescue an army detachment surrounded by Confederate troops near Franklin, Virginia. During a ship-to-shore bombardment 3 Oct.

BASEBALL. Professional baseball in Cleveland emerged in the late 1860s from the area's informal amateur baseball circuit. Initially, the line between amateur and professional play was tenuous.

The BASEBALL ALL-STAR GAMES were held at CLEVELAND MUNICIPAL STADIUM 4 times, on 8 July 1935, 13 July 1954, 9 July 1963, and 9 August 1981. The 1997 All-Star Game was held at Jacobs Field. The 1935, 1954, and 1981 games set All-Star attendance records.

The BASEBALL WORLD SERIES has been played in Cleveland 5 times, when the CLEVELAND INDIANS won the American League championship in 1920, 1948, 1954, 1995, and 1997. They went on to win the series in 1920 and 1948. Cleveland played the Brooklyn Dodgers in a best-of-9 series in 1920.

BASKETBALL. Unlike other team games that evolved over a long period, basketball was invented to provide an easy-to-learn, exciting, inexpensive team sport that could be played in a gym during the winter months. Created in 1891 by James Naismith, physical-education instructor at the Intl. YMCA Training School in Springfield, MA, the game gained immediate popularity, spreading through Y's all over the country.

BATES, KENNETH F. (24 May 1904-24 May 1994), a long-time member of the faculty of the CLEVELAND INSTITUTE OF ART, specialized in enamel work and was nationally recognized for his achievements in the field.

BATH HOUSES were operated by the City of Cleveland from 1904-54, opening at a time when population density exceeded available bathing facilities. Humanitarians promoting cleanliness and Americanism first made public showers available to patrons of the settlement HIRAM HOUSE.

BATTISTA, JOSEPH "Pipp" (4 Nov. 1908-16 May 1993) was a community leader in the LITTLE ITALY neighborhood and a member of the Mayfield-Murray Hill District Council. Battista owned and operated Pipp's Hardware (Murray Hill & Edgehill) for 35 years and was a trustee and president of ALTA HOUSE.

BATTISTI, FRANK JOSEPH (4 Oct. 1922-19 Oct. 1994) was a federal judge for the U.S. District Court, Northern District of Ohio, who presided over the landmark Cleveland school desegregation case resulting in cross-town busing.

BAUDER, LEVI F. (28 Jan. 1840-1 Oct. 1913), was a Civil War soldier, civic official, and permanent secretary of the Soldiers & Sailors Monument Commission. Born in Cleveland to Levi and Eliza (Phillips) Bauder, he graduated from CENTRAL HIGH SCHOOL.

BAY VIEW HOSPITAL, 23200 Lake Ave., BAY VILLAGE, was the area's west side osteopathic medical center from 1948 until 1981. Bay View Hospital's origins go back to 21 Sept. 1935, opening day for the Cleveland Osteopathic Hospital and Clinic at 3146 Euclid Ave.