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WVIZ (Channel 25) was inaugurated on 7 Feb. 1965 to bring noncommercial, educational television to the last major city in the U.S. without it. It materialized through the efforts of a committee of civic and educational leaders appointed by Mayor ANTHONY J.

WWWE originated in Sept. 1923 as WTAM, created by Theodore Willard (see WILLARD STORAGE BATTERY CO.) and S. E. Lawrence. Broadcasting originally at 750 kilocycles and 1,500 watts, WTAM offered a 3-hour schedule of evening programs. Its power was soon increased to 3,500 watts, and the station moved to the Union Trust Bldg.

WYSE ADVERTISING, a Cleveland-based agency, was founded by Marcus (Marc) and Lois Wyse in 1951.

WZAK radio began broadcasting on 26 May 1963 as an ethnic radio station. Founders included Joseph and Elizabeth Bauer, who operated the station, and Xenophon Zapis. It was the first full-time ethnic radio station in Cleveland, and it offered programming in 17 foreign languages, including programs in Hungarian, German (hosted by the Bauers), Greek (hosted by Zapis), Arabic, and Hindi.

The YELLOW CAB CO. became Cleveland's major taxicab service after receiving a monopoly within the city from city council in 1934. A Yellow Cab Co. was organized in Cleveland as early as 1923, operating from E. 49th St. and Superior. It had apparently merged with the Red Top Cab Co. by 1926, altered its name to the Cleveland Yellow Cab Co., and moved into Red Top's former location at 1500-1538 Lakeside Ave.

YESHIVATH ADATH B'NAI ISRAEL (YABI) is an Orthodox Jewish afternoon school for grades K-12. It was established in 1915 because its founders charged that the existing Talmud Torah was not providing a Jewish education to its pupils. Congregation Shomre Shabbos agreed to let the school use its synagogue at E. 37th St. and Woodland as the first school site.

Die YIDDISHE VELT (Jewish World) was Cleveland's principal Yiddish-language newspaper for over 40 years. It had been preceded by the Yiddishe Tegliche Presse (Jewish Daily Press), founded on 1 May 1908 by SAMUEL ROCKER, Adolph Haas, and Jonas Gross. Rocker sold out 2 years later and then brought out the Jewish World in 1911.

The YODER CO. was the largest manufacturer of electric welded tube and pipe mills and roll-forming mills for the agricultural, automotive, petroleum, appliance, electrical, and aerospace industries. Founders Carl M. and Henry Yoder were draftsmen for the Swartwout Mfg. Co. in the early 1900s, when Carl devised a way to mold scrap sheet steel.

The YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSN. of Cleveland, one of the country's first, was founded in 1854 to prevent "the ruin, physical and spiritual, which overtakes so large a proportion of the multitude of young men constantly arriving in our city." It operated out of rooms at Superior and W. 3rd streets, offering prayer meetings, a Sunday school, a lending library, and lectures by figures such as Henry Ward Beecher and Cassius M.

The YOUNG MEN'S SOCIETY, or the Colored Young Men's Lyceum, was an organization of black men in Cleveland founded in 1839 to advance and debate information on a variety of subjects. The society was patterned after the then-popular men's lyceum and literary organizations, with weekly meetings open to the general public.

The YOUNG WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSN. (YWCA) in Cleveland was founded as the Women's Christian Assn. of Cleveland 21 Nov. 1868 (inc. April 1869). One of the earliest such groups in the U.S., it promoted the temporal and spiritual welfare of the city's growing numbers of self-supporting women. Initially located at Superior and W.

YOUNG, AGNES BROOKS (18 Nov. 1898-6 Feb. 1974) turned her talents to the writing of novels after achieving wide recognition as an authority on fashion and costuming.

YOUNG, DALLAS M. (15 Jan. 1914-23 July 1990) professor of labor relations and a national figure in the field, was born in Christopher, Illinois, the son of Arvel and Jennie Jordan Young. He graduated from Southern Illinois Teachers College in 1936 with a B. Ed. degree and attended the University of Illinois, receiving an A.M. in 1936 and a Ph.D.

YOUNG, DENTON TRUE "CY" (29 Mar. 1867-4 Nov. 1955), BASEBALL pitcher (1890-11) for the Natl. League CLEVELAND SPIDERS (1890-98) and for Cleveland in the American League (1909-11), winning a major-league record 511 games in his career, was born at Gilmore, Ohio, son of MacKenzie and Nancy Mot Miller Young.

YOUNG, MERRILL A. (15 Aug. 1905-5 Jan. 1993) labor relations expert, was born in Lulu, Michigan, the son of Charles and Sophia Solwich Young. After graduation from Windham, Ohio high school, he came to Cleveland in the 1920s and began working as a shipping clerk at Cleveland Graphite Bronze, eventually mastering all aspects of bearing manufacture.

YOUNGLOVE, MOSES C. (13 Dec. 1811-13 Apr. 1892), innovative businessman, was born in Cambridge, N.Y., son of Moses and Hannah (Wells) Younglove. He entered college to study law, but abandoned his studies to go into business. Younglove arrived in Cleveland in 1836, in 1837 joining Edward P. Wetmore in establishing a book and stationery store.

YOUTH DEVELOPMENT CENTER. See CLEVELAND BOYS' SCHOOL.


YUGOSLAVS. See CROATIANS; SLOVENES; and SERBIANS.


ZABOLY, BELA (BILL) (4 May 1910-11 April 1985) made Cleveland the home port of "Popeye the Sailor Man" for 2 decades as artist for the syndicated cartoon strip. Born to Hungarian immigrant parents on Cleveland's west side, Zaboly attended WEST HIGH SCHOOL, where he contributed cartoons to the school newspaper, The West Higher.

ZAMECNIK, JOHN S. (1872-13 June 1953) utilized his experience as a Cleveland theater musician to become a pioneer in the scoring of Hollywood film music. A native Clevelander, he was the son of Bohemian immigrants Joseph and Katherine Zamecnik.

ZANGERLE, JOHN A. (12 Apr. 1866-1 Oct. 1956), Cuyahoga County auditor (1913-51) and the last surviving public official of the TOM L. JOHNSON era, was born in Cleveland to Adam and Maria Reisterer Zangerle, graduated from West High School in 1884, read law, and was admitted to the Ohio bar in 1890 before studying economics at the University of Berlin.

ZAPF, NORMAN F. (14 July 1911-23 June 1974), a mechanical engineer whose research in streamlining led to the design and construction of streamlined locomotives, was born in Cleveland to Herman R. and Mabel (McNess) Zapf. He entered Case School of Applied Science, studying aerodynamics under Dr. Paul Hemke.

The ZARJA SINGING SOCIETY is one of the oldest Slovenian choruses outside of Europe. Zarja (The Dawn) was established in 1916 by Cleveland members of the Jugoslav Socialist Fed., based in Chicago. JOHN IVANUSCH became musical director in 1920 and encouraged the addition of women and expansion into more ambitious musical works.

ZELMAN V. SIMMONS-HARRIS was a landmark Supreme Court case upholding, in a 5-4 decision announced on June 27, 2002, the constitutionality of an Ohio law providing vouchers to Cleveland students to attend the public or private, including parochial, schools of their choice.

ZEVIN, BEN D. (16 May 1901-27 Dec. 1984) built the WORLD PUBLISHING CO. into one of the country's leading book publishers in the period during and after WORLD WAR II. Born in the Ukraine, U.S.S.R., he came to America with his family and settled in New York City early in the 20th century.

ZHUN, ELLEN MARIE STEMPIEN (17 Aug. 1922-5 Jan. 1993) was a real estate broker and one of the first female land developers in the Cleveland area when she created Foxcroft Estates in Russell Township in the early 1970s. She was also an interior designer.

ZIMMERMAN, CHARLES X. (18 Jan. 1865-14 Nov. 1926) military commander, businessman, civic activist, and sportsman, was born in Cleveland, the son of Charles X. and Theresa Reis Zimmerman. After receiving his education in Cleveland public schools, he joined the Ohio National Guard 8 May 1884 and rose through the ranks to become a captain. He served in the Spanish American War 1898-99 and was promoted to Colonel.

ZION EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN CHURCH, incorporated on 17 Mar. 1847, helped launch 5 other Lutheran churches of the Missouri Synod in Cleveland. It began on 14 Apr. 1843 when 45 communicants from another congregation organized the German Evangelical Lutheran Church. For 5 years, the congregation worshipped in Concert Hall, on the north side of Superior Ave., between Seneca (W. 3rd) and Bank (W. 6th) streets. Rev.

The ZION MUSICAL SOCIETY may have been the first public Jewish singing organization during the 19th century in America. Formed in 1861 by Rabbi/Cantor GUSTAVE M. COHEN, the society not only performed congregational work but also sang outside of the synagogue. Rabbi Cohen was European-born and educated and, significantly, was the first trained cantor in America.

The ZIONIST ORGANIZATION OF AMERICA CONVENTION (June 1921) in Cleveland was a turning point in American Zionist history, with the leadership of the ZOA changing from Louis Brandeis to a group led by Louis Lipsky and Emanuel Neuman that supported the European ideological Zionism of Chaim Weizman.

ZLAMAL, OLDRICH (4 Apr. 1879-24 Mar. 1955), pastor of Our Lady of Lourdes Parish and a leader in Bohemian affairs in both Cleveland and Czechoslovakia, was born in Kokory, Moravia, Czechoslovakia to Anthony and Antoinette Roussila Zlamal. He was educated at Olmutz and Prerov, and came to Cleveland to complete his studies at St. Mary Seminary. Bp.

ZONING. Zoning in greater Cleveland developed quickly between 1920 and the present, paralleling a similar pattern in other parts of the U.S. Several significant zoning cases have emerged from the Cleveland area, including the landmark case that established its constitutionality. Early land planning and development in Greater Cleveland were unconstrained by zoning or other restrictions.

ZORACH, WILLIAM (28 Feb. 1887-15 Nov. 1966) was one of America's foremost sculptors. He was born Zorach Finklestein in Euberick, Lithuania. His family emigrated to America when he was 4, settling first in Port Clinton, O., and 3 years later on Cleveland's Woodland Ave. While his father supported them as a junk dealer, Zorach sold papers, shined shoes, and attended school through the 7th grade.

ZORMAN, IVAN (Apr. 1885-7 Aug. 1957), poet and composer, was born in Yugoslavia to John and Marie Pucichar Zorman. The family moved to the U.S. when Zorman was 4. He returned to his homeland only once, at 10, staying for a year. When he came back to the U.S., he began studying the Slovene language, attending Central Institute and St. John's College in Minnesota.

ZUCKER, HENRY L. (11 Mar. 1910-22 July 1998) was the head of the Jewish Community Federation for 27 years. He was born in Cleveland to Rose (Edelman) and Morris Zucker, a tailor who ran his own shop.