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The 103RD OHIO VOLUNTEER INFANTRY REGIMENT, 1862-65, included approximately 460 men from Cleveland and Cuyahoga County during its term of service. The regiment was raised at Camp Cleveland (see CIVIL WAR CAMPS IN CLEVELAND) during the summer of 1862, leaving for Cincinnati on 3 Sept.

The 107TH OHIO VOLUNTEER INFANTRY REGIMENT, 1862-65, was composed largely of immigrant Germans from Cleveland and Cuyahoga County. It was organized at Camp Cleveland (see CIVIL WAR CAMPS IN CLEVELAND) in the summer of 1862 and mustered into federal service on 9 Sept. The regiment was transferred to Covington, KY, serving there until October.

The 10TH OHIO VOLUNTEER CAVALRY, 1862-65, was organized at Camp Cleveland (see CIVIL WAR CAMPS IN CLEVELAND) in 1863 to serve in the CIVIL WAR. Companies A through L were mustered into federal service from January through March. Co. M was not mustered in until July, however, at Camp Chase in Columbus, OH.

The 11TH MILITARY DISTRICT OF OHIO, headquartered in Cleveland, was one of 11 recruiting districts established throughout the state by proclamation of Governor David Tod on 8 July 1862. The districts were established to coordinate the recruitment of CIVIL WAR soldiers. Twenty-two regiments, totaling over 30,000 men, were to be created in the state.

The 124TH OHIO VOLUNTEER INFANTRY REGIMENT, 1862-65, was organized at Camp Cleveland (see CIVIL WAR CAMPS IN CLEVELAND) in the fall of 1862 and mustered into federal service on 1 Jan. 1863. It moved to Elizabethtown, KY, and remained there until Feb. 1863 as a part of the District of Western Kentucky, Dept. of the Ohio.

The 128TH OHIO VOLUNTEER INFANTRY REGIMENT served as the guard unit at the prison for captured Confederate soldiers at Johnson's Island during the CIVIL WAR. The first 4 units of the regiment—companies A, B, C, and D—were organized in Dec. 1861 and early 1862 and were known as Hoffman's Battalion in honor of Lt. Col.

The 12TH OHIO VOLUNTEER CAVALRY, 1863-65, was organized at Camp Cleveland (see CIVIL WAR CAMPS IN CLEVELAND) and mustered into federal service on 24 Nov. 1863. From Dec. 1863-Feb. 1864, the 12th was on duty at Camp Chase in Columbus, OH. Half of the regiment was on detached duty at Johnson's Island near Sandusky, OH, during that period. In Feb.-Mar.

The 135TH ARTILLERY was a local Ohio National Guard (ONG) unit which traced its lineage to the 1ST OHIO VOLUNTEER LIGHT ARTILLERY (OVLA). After Mexican border duty (1916-17), the 1st Battalion, OVLA was redesignated the 1st Field Artillery (FA) ONG (May 1917) and then the 134th FAONG (Sept. 1917).

The 150TH OHIO VOLUNTEER INFANTRY REGIMENT, 1864, contained 801 Cleveland men during its 100 days of service in the CIVIL WAR. The 150th, formerly the 29TH OHIO VOLUNTEER MILITIA, was raised by the CLEVELAND GRAYS, who took credit for raising 5 companies.

The 1525 FOUNDATION, sister fund to the Second Foundation, was incorporated in Cleveland in 1971 by KENT HALE SMITH. The foundation emphasizes higher education, environment and conservation, and institutions supported by the founder in his lifetime. It especially favors agencies which promote self-help by recipients.

The 15TH OHIO NATIONAL GUARD REGIMENT, formed in June 1879 and disbanded in 1881, was composed of local and regional militia companies and was the period's dominant military organization in Cleveland. Its principal officers were Col. Allan T. Brinsmade, Lt. Col. George A. McKay, and Maj. Henry Richardson. The regiment was a federation of 5 Cleveland companies—the Emmett Guards (Co. A), the Veteran Guards (Co.

The 177TH OHIO VOLUNTEER INFANTRY REGIMENT, 1864-65, was organized at Camp Cleveland, Ohio (see CIVIL WAR CAMPS IN CLEVELAND), for 1 year's service in the CIVIL WAR on 9 Oct. 1864. The 177th was transported to Nashville, then to Tullahoma, TN, for duty until Nov. 1864. Between Oct.-Dec.

The 18TH PROVOST MARSHAL DISTRICT OF OHIO (1863-65), headquartered in Cleveland, was created by the Enrollment Act of 3 Mar. 1863, passed by the U.S. Congress, to coordinate recruitment of federal troops to serve in the CIVIL WAR. The 18th District supplanted the 11TH MILITARY DISTRICT.

The 1919 STEEL STRIKE traces its origins back to 1918, when efforts were first made to try and unionize the steel industry. By the summer of 1919, there was a steel union "in every important mill town." When U.S. Steel refused to negotiate with the union, union leaders called for a national strike on 22 Sept. 1919. On that date, 18,000 workers in 16 unions went on strike in Cleveland.

The 19TH MEDICAL DISTRICT OF OHIO, the Greater Cleveland-Medina area, was one of 20 districts designated by the State of Ohio in 1824 for licensing doctors and supervising medical care. Though the original bill was passed in 1811, the number of districts changed as population shifted in the growing state. On 24 May 1824, all qualified area physicians met at a hotel at Water and St.

The 19TH OHIO INDEPENDENT BATTERY, 1862-65, was mustered into federal service in the CIVIL WAR at Camp Cleveland for 3 years on 10 Sept. 1862. It remained in Cleveland until movement to Kentucky on 6 Oct. In Lexington, KY, the 19th Battery was assigned to the Army of Kentucky, Dept. of the Ohio, until Dec. 1862. Between Dec. 1862 and Jan.

The 1ST OHIO VOLUNTEER LIGHT ARTILLERY (OVLA), 1861-64, CIVIL WAR service, was recruited on a state-wide basis. Batteries A and B were recruited from the disbanded 1ST REGIMENT OF LIGHT ARTILLERY, sometimes referred to as the CLEVELAND LIGHT ARTILLERY (CLA).

The 1ST REGIMENT OF LIGHT ARTILLERY, comprised of 131 men from Cuyahoga County, campaigned for 3 months (Apr.-July) in western Virginia during the CIVIL WAR in 1861. Organized in 1860, the 1st Regiment, commanded by Col. JAMES BARNETT of Cleveland, was assigned to the 3d Brigade, 4th Div. of the Ohio Militia.

The 20TH OHIO INDEPENDENT BATTERY, 1862-65, was mustered into federal service at Camp Cleveland (see CIVIL WAR CAMPS) on 29 Oct. 1862. From Dec. 1862-Feb. 1863, the battery moved toward Murfreesboro, TN.

The 23D OHIO VOLUNTEER INFANTRY REGIMENT, 1861-65, included two future U.S. presidents, Rutherford B. Hayes and William McKinley. The unit was organized at Camp Chase in Columbus, OH, and mustered into federal service on 11 June 1861. A total of 341 Cleveland men served with the regiment. The 23d was assigned to the following units: Cox's Kanawha Brigade (July-Sept. 1861); Scammon's Brigade, Dist.

The 29TH OHIO VOLUNTEER MILITIA was created in 1863 after the passage of a state law requiring all white male citizens ages 18-45 to enroll for 5 years' military service. It was composed primarily of men from each of Cleveland's 16 wards. Little is known about the personnel or organization of this unit, although the following individuals were listed as officers in Aug.

The 2D OHIO VOLUNTEER CAVALRY, 1861-65, was organized at Camp Wade (see CIVIL WAR CAMPS IN CLEVELAND) during Aug.-Sept. 1861. The regiment, which contained 317 Cleveland men, was mustered into federal service in the CIVIL WAR on 10 Oct. 1861.

The 331ST INFANTRY REGIMENT served during WORLD WAR I as part of the U.S. Army 83d Infantry Division. Composed entirely of Clevelanders ages 21-31 who had been drafted into the army, the regiment included companies A, B, C, D, H, and L and a supply company. Basic training of the new recruits was conducted at Camp Sherman, northwest of Chillicothe, OH.

The 332D INFANTRY REGIMENT served during WORLD WAR I as part of the U.S. Army 83d Infantry Division. It was composed of Clevelanders ages 21-31 who had been drafted into the army. Commanded by Capt. John Dempsey, the 332d saw action in Italy, and shortly after the armistice, marched into conquered Austria.

The 37TH OHIO VOLUNTEER INFANTRY REGIMENT, 1861-65, was one of 3 Ohio CIVIL WAR regiments consisting primarily of immigrant Germans. Approximately 152 Clevelanders served in this regiment. The 37th was organized at Camp Brown (see CIVIL WAR CAMPS IN CLEVELAND) during Aug. and Sept. 1861.

The 41ST OHIO VOLUNTEER INFANTRY REGIMENT, 1861-65, rendezvoused and was organized for service in the CIVIL WAR between 26 Aug. 1861 and 29 Oct. 1861, at Camp Wood in Cleveland. The 41st was mustered into federal service on 31 Oct. 1861. Approximately 407 Cleveland men served in its ranks.

The 50 CLUB OF CLEVELAND is made up of top business executives, corporate lawyers and other well-known Cleveland figures who meet to hear prominent speakers and engage in strictly off-the-record, frank discussion.

The 5TH OHIO NATIONAL GUARD REGIMENT (1881-1917) was formed 7 July 1881 to replace the 15th ONG Regiment. Composed of local and regional militia companies, the 5th consisted of the Forest City, Washington, and Light Guards of Cleveland as well as units from Elyria, CHAGRIN FALLS, and Geneva, OH, as well as two new companies recruited by 1894.

The 60TH OHIO VOLUNTEER INFANTRY REGIMENT (Reorganized), 1864-65, was composed of a number of men from Cleveland and Cuyahoga County. This unit should not be confused with the 60th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, which served 1 year in 1862. The reorganized 60th Regiment was mustered at Cleveland and Columbus, OH, between Feb.-Apr. 1864.

The 6TH OHIO VOLUNTEER CAVALRY was organized at Camp Hutchins in Warren, OH, on 7 Oct. 1861. Composed of recruits drawn mostly from the WESTERN RESERVE, it was authorized by the War Dept. to serve in the CIVIL WAR, as the second regiment in Wade's & Hutchins' Cavalry Brigade. In Jan.

The 7TH OHIO VOLUNTEER INFANTRY REGIMENT, 1861-64, was the first CIVIL WAR regiment rendezvoused and organized in Cleveland. Three companies were composed solely of Clevelanders, while Clevelanders served as officers in other companies, giving the unit a total of 610 local men.

The 84TH OHIO VOLUNTEER INFANTRY REGIMENT, organized at Camp Chase in Columbus, OH, in May and June 1862, contained 2 companies from Cleveland during its 3 months of service in the CIVIL WAR. Companies D and E were recruited by the CLEVELAND GRAYS.

The 8TH OHIO VOLUNTEER INFANTRY REGIMENT was organized 29 Apr.-2 May 1861 at Camp Taylor (see CIVIL WAR CAMPS IN CLEVELAND) and was mustered into service in the CIVIL WAR for 3 months on 2 May. Monuments to the 8th Ohio stand at the Antietam and Gettysburg battlefield sites.

9TO5, NATIONAL ASSN. OF WORKING WOMEN, with 25 local chapters, representatives in 200 cities, and headquarters in Cleveland from 1977-93, advocates equal pay and rights for WOMEN in the workplace. It has worked closely with its research and training arm, the 9to5 Working Women Education Fund.

A. LOPRESTI AND SONS was founded in 1908 when Carl LoPresti began selling apples and oranges from a pushcart. The next stage was the acquisition of a horse-drawn cart. At this point, the firm's "warehouse" was the family garage, and there was also a retail outlet—a stand at the CENTRAL MARKET. The company first appears in a city directory in the early 1930s.

The A. M. MCGREGOR HOME, incorporated in 1904, was established by two sisters as a residence for white Protestants of means over age sixty-five. Tootie Barber McGregor (later Mrs. Marshall Terry) donated a house and land on Terrace Road, EAST CLEVELAND, in memory of her husband, Ambrose McGregor, and provided $5,000 per year for the home's first five years.

AACCESS-OHIO, the Arab American Community Center for Economic & Social Services in Ohio, was established in December 1991 as a nonprofit service organization and community center. Its mission is to meet the economic, social, and cultural needs of Cleveland's Arab American community, and to promote better understanding of Arab culture while integrating Arab Americans into the mainstream of American life.

ABOLITIONISM. The contribution that Clevelanders made to the cause of black emancipation was related to 2 geographic factors: the location of the city in the Puritan New England environment of the WESTERN RESERVE, and its position on Lake Erie opposite the shores of Canada, destination of many hundreds of fugitives from the slave South.

ABRAHAM LINCOLN'S FUNERAL included a wake for the late president held on Cleveland's Public Square on 28 Apr. 1865. Lincoln had been assassinated in Washington, DC, on 14 Apr. Cleveland was one stop in a 1,700-mile rail journey to Springfield, IL, where Lincoln was buried on 4 May.

ABRAHAM LINCOLN'S VISIT TO CLEVELAND took place 15-16 Feb. 1861 on the president-elect's way to Washington, DC. Invited to stop in Cleveland by former mayor GEO. B. SENTER, Lincoln arrived at the Euclid St. Station at 4 P.M. on the 15th.

The ACACIA COUNTRY CLUB, located on the northeast corner of Cedar and Richmond roads in LYNDHURST, opened on 31 May 1921, although only 9 holes of its golf course were completed and it had no official clubhouse. Originally limited to Masons, it was later opened to non-Masons. The club covered 300 acres and offered some of the finest golfing in the area.

The ACADEMY OF MEDICINE OF CLEVELAND (as of 2005, the Academy of Medicine Cleveland and the Northern Ohio Medical Association, or AMC/NOMA) was formed on May 28, 1902 (incorporated in 1924) through a merger of the CUYAHOGA COUNTY MEDICAL SOCIETY and the CLEVELAND MEDICAL SOCIETY.

The ACADEMY OF MUSIC was probably the most famous theater in the history of Cleveland and one of the most celebrated in the U.S. It was also among the nation's best drama schools. The theater was opened in 1853 by Chas. Foster of Pittsburgh, who ran it for a short period and then leased it to JOHN A. ELLSLER.

The ACHIEVEMENT CENTERS FOR CHILDREN, a nonprofit agency founded nationally in Elyria in 1907 and locally on July 7, 1940 as the Society For Crippled Children, has provided outpatient rehabilitation for disabled individuals from birth through age twenty-one. The death of his only son and the injuries of others in a streetcar accident on Memorial Day 1907 led industrialist Edgar F.

ACKLEY, HORACE A. (Aug. 1810-26 Apr. 1859), was a surgeon, the first local physician to use ether in surgery, and a founder of the Cleveland Medical College, now the medical school of CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY.

ACME-CLEVELAND CORP. was formed in 1968 by the merger of the Cleveland Twist Drill Co. and the Natl. Acme Co. By 1980 it was one of the largest machine-tool manufacturers in the U.S., with net sales of $405 million.

ACTIVE COMMUNICATIONS, INC., is the publisher of two tabloids, the Active Voice and the Weekly Farce. The company was founded in 1988 by two brothers in their 20s, Ken and Ron McEntee, both graduates of Berea High School. The Weekly Farce, introduced in Feb. 1988, is a publication devoted entirely to local and national humor, spoofing current news, politics, sports, and media.

ACTRON MANUFACTURING CO., largest producer of automotive test equipment in the nation, was incorporated 13 March 1964 by John W. Moran to make tachometers, voltmeters, and transistor ignitions for automobiles.

ADAMS, ALMEDA C. (February 26, 1865-September 8, 1949) overcame sightlessness to help found the CLEVELAND MUSIC SCHOOL SETTLEMENT and achieved a long career as a teacher, author, and lecturer.