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BENJAMIN, CHARLES H. (29 Aug. 1856-2 Aug. 1937), a mechanical engineer and educator at Case School of Applied Science from 1889-1907, established that school's mechanical engineering department. Benjamin was born in Patten, Maine, the son of Samuel E. and Ellen Fairfield Benjamin.

BENN, REV. LUTHER (28 Oct. 1910-15 Aug. 1993) was the founder of St. John Missionary Baptist Church in CLEVELAND HTS., known as a place where the hungry could go to get food and clothing. Benn was noted for his encyclopedic knowledge of the Bible and he was often sought out for advice on secular as well as religious matters.

BENTLEY, REVEREND ADAMSON (4 July 1785-2 Nov. 1864) was a minister of the DISCIPLES OF CHRIST, a banker and merchant, and the first settler in BENTLEYVILLE which he founded in 1831.

BENTLEYVILLE, originally part of CHAGRIN FALLS TWP., is a 2.75 sq. mi. village approx. 20 miles southeast of Cleveland.

BENTON, ELBERT JAY (23 Mar. 1871-28 Mar. 1946), was an author, educator, historian, and college administrator. Born in Dubuque, Iowa, to Oliver Dustin and Sarah Proctor Benton, Elbert grew up in Kansas where he received his A.B. degree from Campbell College, Kansas City University.

BEREA, originally part of MIDDLEBURG TWP., incorporated as a village in 1850 and as a city in 1930. It is a 4.88-sq.-mi. residential suburb approx.

BERGENER, ALBERT EDWARD MYRNE (A.E.M.) (5 Sept. 1875-14 May 1950) was, in the words of one of his reporters, the "cussing, shouting, reporter-insulting, hard-boiled" city editor of the CLEVELAND NEWS. The son of Henry and Katherine (Casyl) Bergener, he was born and raised in Chicago. He dropped out of the Univ.

BERGMAN, ROBERT P. (17 May 1945 - 6 May 1999) was the director of the Cleveland Museum of Art and a nationally recognized spokesman for arts institutions. Bergman was born in Bayonne, New Jersey to Ethel and Abe Bergman. He received a bachelor's degree from Rutgers University and a master's degree and Ph.D. from Princeton University.

BERNARDI, GIACOMO (3 Jan. 1888-12 Aug. 1966) brought some of the greatest names in music to Cleveland in his career as impresario of more than 1,000 concerts. Born Jacob Moses Schwartzman in Bendery, Bessarabia, he immigrated to the U.S. in 1906 and soon found employment in a Cleveland clothing factory.

BERNON, (BERNSTEIN) MAURICE (24 Aug. 1885-23 Mar. 1954) political activist, and philanthropist, was born in Cleveland, the son of polish immigrants David J. and Augusta Jacobs Bernstein. Educated at CENTRAL HIGH SCHOOL, Bernstein entered Western Reserve University Law school at age 18 and , received an LLB degree in 1906.

BERNSTEIN, HARRY (1856-1920), known as "Czar" Bernstein, was an entrepreneur and Republican political ward boss who could, according to contemporary accounts, deliver the votes he promised from his ward to a man. Born in Poland to Berman and Rosa Bernstein, he was brought to Cleveland in 1868, and educated in the public schools.

BERTMAN, JOSEPH (1902-20 Oct. 1988), noted for his Ball Park mustard first used at LEAGUE PARK in the late 1920s and then at CLEVELAND MUNICIPAL STADIUM for many years, was born in Lublin, Poland in 1902 and came to this area with his parents as a child. Working as a deliveryman for William Edwards Co.

BETH HAKNESSETH ANSHE GRODNO congregation (1904-51), once also known as the Synagogue of the Province of Grodno, was founded in 1904 and incorporated that August by Morris Shapiro, Max Lifshitz, and Jacob Landy. Eleven Russian immigrant Jews from Grodno, Lithuania, founded the orthodox congregation. Religious services were held initially in the home of Benjamin Zelling. After 3 months, a hall was rented at Perry (E.

BETH ISRAEL-WEST TEMPLE was organized by 25 families, led by Abe Silverstein, in April 1954, to provide a religious center for Reform Jews living on Cleveland's west side. The congregation's first service, Rosh Hashonah, was held 27 Sept. 1954 at the First Universalist Church in N. OLMSTED. For the next 3 years, services were held either at the Universalist Church or the N.

The BETHANY NATIONAL EVANGELICAL CHURCH (Finnish) served the Finnish community on Cleveland's west side. It was founded in 1919. Unable to support its own minister in the early years, Bethany was served by visiting clerics from the large Finnish community in Fairport and Ashtabula. In 1942 it hired its own pastor. For many years the church, a member of the Finnish Natl.

BETHANY PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, 6415 W. Clinton Ave., originated from a mission Sunday school of the FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH (OLD STONE) in Jan. 1888 and formally organized on 2 July 1889. Charles Fay and Rev. Wilton Merle Smith, assoc.

BETHEL UNION was organized on 31 Jan. 1867 as an auxiliary of the WESTERN SEAMEN'S FRIEND SOCIETY, to evangelize in the neighborhoods near the CUYAHOGA RIVER and to maintain a home for the friendless, the poor, and sailors between jobs. Loren Prentiss, Edward C. Pope, H. C. Tuttle, and Edwin R.

BETHLEHEM CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH (1888-1954), at the corner of Broadway and Fowler avenues, had its origins in Protestant missionary work among Czech immigrants in Cleveland in the early 1880s. In 1883 a Bohemian Mission Board of Cleveland was incorporated to coordinate the work of Cleveland Congregational churches with the Bohemian colony, and in 1884 Bethlehem Church was built at the corner of Broadway and Fowler.

BICKFORD, CLARA L. (GEHRING) (25 Sept. 1903-13 Dec. 1985), musician, teacher, and collector, founded and served as the first president (1933-35) of the Women's Committee of the CLEVELAND INSTITUTE OF MUSIC (CIM). A pianist, Bickford collected music manuscripts, letters, autographs, and photographs relating to MUSIC.

BICKFORD, GEORGE P. (28 Nov. 1901-14 Oct. 1991), a Cleveland attorney, became a noted authority on Indian and Far Eastern art through the process of acquiring an extensive personal collection in the field. A native of Berlin, N.H., he was raised in Washington, D.C. Following his graduation from Harvard in 1922, he traveled to China, where he studied Chinese and taught in a missionary school in Shanghai.

The BICKNELL FUND was incorporated in 1949 in Cleveland by Kate Hanna Bicknell and WARREN BICKNELL, JR., "for the purpose of promoting the well-being of mankind." The fund grants go primarily to local community and educational institutions, but not to individuals or for loans.

BICKNELL, WARREN, JR. (5 Sept. 1902-23 April 1975), leader in both business and PHILANTHROPY, founded the BICKNELL FUND with his wife, Kate Hanna Bicknell. He was born in Wheaton, IL, to Ann Guthrie Bicknell and Warren Bicknell, Sr.

The BIEHLE FAMILY were designers and painters who worked on frescoes and decorative painting for such clients as the Chamber of Commerce, churches, and several of Cleveland's foremost families. August Frederick Biehle, Sr. (4 July 1856-10 Nov. 1918), the senior family member, was born in Freiberg, Baden. His father, a manufacturer of costume jewelry, died when he was 4.

BIEHLE, AUGUST FREDERICK JR. (13 Jan. 1885-7 Feb. 1979) emerged from the artistic background of the BIEHLE FAMILY to become a recognized member of the "Cleveland School" of artists (see ART). Born in Cleveland, the son of Christina (Mussler) and August F.

BIELEN, CASIMIR (10 Feb. 1925-2 Sept. 1992), educator and clean-air activist, participated in more than 80 organizations, including nationality groups and political and educational organizations. The NATIONALITIES SERVICES CENTER recognized Bielen's fundraising efforts in 1977.

The BIG BROTHER/BIG SISTER MOVEMENT began in Cleveland in 1919 with the formation of the Jewish Big Brother and Jewish Big Sister associations, out of concern for the moral character of urban adolescents. Affiliated with the national Big Brothers/Big Sisters of America (founded 1903), these organizations provide "one-to-one friendships," matching adults with children from single-parent households.

BIG ITALY was Cleveland's first major Italian settlement and the center of the city's produce markets. In the late 1890s, Italians settled in the HAYMARKET along Woodland near the city center. By 1900 this formerly Jewish area was 93% Sicilian.

BILL, ARTHUR HOLBROOK (10 Nov. 1877-11 Mar. 1961), was an innovator in hospital obstetrics and helped establish Cleveland's reputation for low maternal mortality. Born in Cleveland to Herbert Weston and May McIlewain Bill, he received his B.A. from Adelbert College (1897), his M.A. from Western Reserve University (1898), and his M.D. from WRU Medical School (1901).

The BING CO. was one of Ohio's largest furniture stores. Louis S. Bing and Elias Nathan opened a retail furniture store 24 Mar. 1891, on Seneca (W. 3rd) St. in Cleveland's retail trading center with 10 employees. The partnership lasted only a few years, and by 1895 Bing had bought out Nathan's interest, continuing business under his own name until the early 1900s when his younger brother, Sol, became a junior partner.


BINGHAM, CHARLES W. (22 May 1846-3 Mar. 1929), was a businessman active in Cleveland cultural institutions. Born in Cleveland to William and Elizabeth Beardsley Bingham, he graduated from Yale with a B.A. in 1868. Bingham spent 3 years in Europe studying geology, mining, and chemistry. He earned his M.A.

BINGHAM, FLAVEL W. (15 May 1803-1867) was a lawyer and politician who served 1 year as mayor of Cleveland. He was born in New York to Flavel and Fanny White Bingham and came to Cleveland in 1837, where he set up the law practice of Collins & Bingham. He was elected councilman and chosen city council president in 1845.

BINGHAM, WILLIAM (9 Mar. 1816-17 Apr. 1904), a prominent Cleveland businessman, was born in Andover, Conn. to Capt. Cyrus and Abigail Foote Bingham. He was educated in Andover and Monson, Mass. schools before coming to Cleveland when he was 20. His father helped him establish a hardware business with GEO.

BINKLEY, ROBERT CEDRIC (10 Dec. 1897-11 April 1940), professor and Chairman of the Department of History at Flora Stone Mather College of Western Reserve University (WRU, 1932-40), earned a national reputation as an historian pioneering and advocating archival preservation methods such as the Photostat, microphotography, and mimeography.

BIRD, PHILIP SMEAD (9 Nov. 1886-10 June 1948), a clergyman and civic leader, was born in Newtonville, Mass., the son of Joseph Edward and Gertrude Hubbard Smead Bird. He graduated with an A.B. from Pomona College, Claremont, Calif. (1909); from the University of California with a Master of Literature degree (1910); and from Union Theological Seminary, New York, in 1913.

BIRDTOWN (also known as the Bird’s Nest) is a nationally registered historical district in the Cleveland streetcar suburb of LAKEWOOD.  Bordered by Madison Ave. on the north, W.

BIRINYI, LOUIS KOSSUTH (19 Apr. 1886—3 Sept. 1941) was a prominent member of the Cleveland Hungarian community. Author, journalist, and lawyer, Birinyi was an articulate spokesman on behalf of his native Hungary.

BIRNS, ALEX "SHONDOR" (21 Feb. 1905-29 Mar. 1975), a notorious criminal, was involved in rackets, PROSTITUTION, theft, assault, and murder from the days of Prohibition until his death. Born to Herman and Illon Birn, the family immigrated to Cleveland from Austria-Hungary in 1907.



BIRTHRIGHT, INC., which opened its first Cleveland office at West 147th Street and Detroit Avenue in March 1971, is a nonsectarian volunteer organization offering pregnant WOMEN of all ages an alternative to abortion. It counsels single and married women experiencing emotional or financial difficulties who wish to continue pregnancies to term.

BISHOP, ROBERT H., JR. (22 Aug. 1879-29 Sept. 1955), a Cleveland physician, was a leader in hospital administration, in anti-tuberculosis (TB), and other public health issues. Born in Mankato, Kan., he graduated in 1903 from Ohio's Miami University where his great-grandfather had been the college's first president and his grandfather a Latin Professor.


BLACK HAWK (1767-3 Oct. 1838) was an American Indian chief of the Sauk, and leader of the Black Hawk War against the U.S. in 1832. Born in a Sauk village on Rock River, Ill., near the present day city of Rock Island, Ill., he came to Cleveland in 1833 to visit his mother's grave on the CUYAHOGA RIVER.

The BLACK LAWS were a series of early 19th-century restrictions on Cleveland's black citizens imposed by the Ohio state constitution of 1802 and by state law. Growing antislavery sentiment in the WESTERN RESERVE caused most of these laws to be repealed before the Civil War. Like other Northwest Territory states, Ohio was influenced by southern attitudes toward race.

BLACK MILITARY UNITS, prohibited by state officials and Ohio's militia law of 1803, served in the CIVIL WAR nonetheless. However, legal restriction of militia service to whites was not removed in Ohio until 1878.

The BLACK TRADES COUNCIL was founded in June 1991 by George D. Edwards, an African-American pipefitter, to remedy the historical underrepresentation of minorities and women in the various building trades. As a nonprofit agency chartered by the state of Ohio in 1992, the Black Trades Council was financially supported by a consortium of minority contractors and tradesmen and was partially staffed by volunteer instructors.

The BLACK WOMEN'S POLITICAL ACTION COMMITTEE (BWPAC) was organized in the fall of 1983 at the urging of Barbara Boyd, manager of Una H. R. Keenon's unsuccessful campaign for CUYAHOGA COUNTY JUVENILE COURT judge.

BLACK, COL. LOUIS (24 Dec. 1844-12 Jan. 1919) was a civic and business leader best known as president of the BAILEY COMPANY. A native of Hungary, he was the son of Morris and Rose Black, reputed to be Cleveland's first Hungarian family when they immigrated to the city in 1854.