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BLACK, MORRIS ALFRED (31 May 1868-23 Apr. 1938), was an influential businessman and civic leader. Born in Toledo, Ohio, to Hungarian Jewish immigrants Herman and Eva Judd Black, in 1892 the Blacks moved to Cleveland, where Herman's uncle and aunt were the pioneer Hungarian family. Black graduated from Harvard University with an A.B. in 1890 and became a designer in the H.

BLANCHARD, FERDINAND Q. (23 July 1876-4 Mar. 1968), a clergyman, poet, author, and civic leader, was born in Jersey City Hts., N.J., to Edward Richmond and Anna Winifred Quincy Blanchard. He received his A.B. from Amherst College (1898) and his B.D. from Yale Divinity School (1901). He was ordained in 1901, and pastored churches in Southington, Conn. (1901-04) and East Orange, N.J.

BLEE, ROBERT E. (31 Jan. 1839-26 Feb. 1898), a railroad superintendent, was mayor of Cleveland from 1893-95. Born in Glenville, Ohio, to Bridget and Hugh Blee who were early settlers of Cuyahoga County, Blee attended district schools and Shaw Academy at COLLAMER, and was inspired by a graduation speaker to pursue a career in railroading.

BLESSED SACRAMENT CHURCH. See ST. PATRICK'S PARISH.


The BLINKY MORGAN CASE, one of Cleveland's more notorious crimes, began on the night of 26 January 1887, when a well-known gang headed by "Blinky Morgan" (Charles Conklin) robbed downtown's Benedict and Ruedy store of a large quantity of valuable furs. Several weeks later one of the gang members, Harry McMunn, was captured in Allegheny City, Pennsylvania.

BLISS, STOUGHTON (18 Feb. 1823-19 Sept. 1896), was a Cleveland businessman and Army officer during the CIVIL WAR. Son of William and Cynthia (Wolcott) Bliss, he was born in Cleveland and worked as a post office clerk until he went into the hat and fur business in 1846.

BLIZZARDS (snowstorms with constant winds over 35 mph) do not occur frequently in Cleveland, though heavy winter snowstorms are normal because of the proximity of Lake Erie and "lake effect" snows. In Cleveland, the worst blizzards listed in the National Weather Service records since 1871 occurred 9-11 Nov. 1913, 23-28 Nov. 1950, and 26-27 Jan. 1978.

BLOCH, ERNEST (24 July 1880-15 July 1959), was an internationally known composer, conductor, and teacher recruited to found and direct the CLEVELAND INSTITUTE OF MUSIC in 1920. Bloch was born in Geneva, Switzerland.

BLODGETT, WALTER (28 May 1908-25 Oct. 1975), an organist and teacher, was curator of musical arts at the CLEVELAND MUSEUM OF ART (CMA) from 1943-74. Born in Grand Rapids, Mich., the son of Arthur W. and Asenath (Harvey) Blodgett, he was a graduate of Oberlin College and the Julliard School of Music.

BLONDER CO., one of the largest dealers in wallpapers and paints, was established in 1918 as the Milner-Blonder Co. by Nathan Milner and Harry Blonder. Milner had been a cigarmaker and Blonder a paperhanger; both lived on E. 37th St. near Woodland.

The BLOSSOM HILL SCHOOL FOR GIRLS, founded in 1914 as the Cleveland Girls' Farm, was one of the first juvenile rehabilitation centers of its type in the United States. The girls' farm, privately run for forty-four years, emphasized a secure social setting, work away from home, and education as necessary to changing delinquent behavior.

BLOSSOM, DUDLEY S. (10 Mar. 1879-7 Oct. 1938), was a Cleveland businessman and philanthropist whose charitable activities eventually led him to civic office as city welfare director. Blossom, the son of Henry S. and Lela Stocking Blossom, after earning an A.B.

BLOSSOM, EMILY ELKINS (7 May 1913-21 Dec. 1991) was awarded the Medal of Merit from the Garden Club of America in 1973 for helping to create, beautify and sustain Blossom Music Center, the CLEVELAND ORCHESTRA's summer home. On 11 July 1992 the center dedicated the Emily Blossom Garden, established in 1990 in her honor.

BLOSSOM, HENRY C. (16 Nov. 1822-18 Aug. 1883) was a business leader and life member of the WESTERN RESERVE HISTORICAL SOCIETY and the Northern Ohio Historical Society. He was born in Chester, GA, to Orrin and Laura Fellows Blossom. Blossom came to the Cleveland area in the 1830s to work in a hardware store, first in Painesville.

BLOSSOM, VOYAGE OF THE See VOYAGE OF THE BLOSSOM.


BLUE CROSS & BLUE SHIELD OF OHIO is a not-for-profit mutual insurance company and an Independent Licensee of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Assn. The state's oldest and largest health insurer, by 1995 it served more than 1.6 million Ohioans.

BLUE CROSS OF NORTHEAST OHIO united the CLEVELAND HOSPITAL SERVICE ASSN. (CHSA) and the Akron Hospital Service Assn. (est. 1936) medical insurance plans. At the merger in 1957, the Akron group had 225,000 subscribers, while Cleveland had 1.5 million. The Blue Cross name and emblem originated with a St. Paul, MN, hospitalization plan in 1933.

BLUE ROCK SPRING HOUSE was a regionally renowned water cure located in Cedar Glen (Cedar Road, south of UNIV. CIRCLE). Between 1880-1908 it operated as a sanitarium or hotel, offering a variety of mineral-bath treatments and bottled spring water.

BLUE, WELCOME T., SR. (1867-24 May 1930), one of Cleveland's pioneering AFRICAN AMERICAN realtors and prominent community leaders, was born in Stillwater, Ohio.

The BLUESTONE QUARRIES were situated in the small village of Bluestone near the intersection of Green and Bluestone roads in S. EUCLID. In its heyday, Bluestone was home to about 400 people and contained a general store and post office, 2 saloons, a temperance hall, a church, and boarding houses.

BLYTHIN, EDWARD (10 Oct. 1884-14 Feb. 1958), was Cleveland law director, mayor, and judge. Born in Newmarket, Wales, to Peter and Elizabeth Roberts Blythin, he worked 2 years as a bookkeeper for an English coal firm before coming to Cleveland in 1906, where he worked as bookkeeper for the Walton Realty Co. for 10 years while studying law nights at Cleveland Law School. After receiving his LL.D.

BOARDMAN, WILLIAM JARVIS (15 Apr. 1832-2 Aug. 1915), was a lawyer active in Cleveland business, civic, and political affairs before moving to Washington, D.C., in the late 1880s. Son of Henry Mason and Sarah Hall Benham Boardman and born in Boardman, Ohio, William Boardman spent 3 years at Kenyon College before transferring to Trinity College in Hartford, Conn. where he graduated in 1854.

BOATING (RECREATIONAL). Recreational boating, more specifically yachting, became an organized sport in Cleveland in 1878 when GEO. GARDNER founded the Cleveland Yachting Assn., subsequently known as the CLEVELAND YACHT CLUB.

BOBBIE BROOKS, INC., a leader in the production of women's apparel, was established by MAURICE SALTZMAN and Max Reiter as Ritmore Sportswear, Inc. in a loft in the Bradley Bldg. on W. 6th St. in 1939.

BOCK, JOSEPH COURTNEY (24 Sept. 1913-14 Feb. 1992), musical prodigy and outstanding amateur tennis player, was born in Cleveland the son of Peter D. and Laura Henrich Bock. He attended Western Reserve University studying the liberal arts. Bock also was an accomplished musician playing the piano and violin at a young age.

The BODDIE RECORDING CO., run by Thomas and Louise Boddie, was Cleveland's first African-American owned and operated recording studio, serving a clientele ranging from gospel, soul, and rhythm & blues groups, to rock, bluegrass, and country musicians from as far away as Detroit and West Virginia. Fascinated with Rube Goldberg machines and electronics since his childhood, owner Thomas R.

BOEHM, CHARLES (1853-9 Apr. 1932), was a missionary to Hungarian immigrants in America. Born in Selmecbanya, Hungary, to Felez and Julia Boehm, he entered the minor seminary at Esztergom, and was sent to the University of Vienna, where he completed his studies for the priesthood. He was ordained on 16 July 1876.

The BOHEMIAN NATIONAL HALL, built at 4939 Broadway Avenue in 1896-97 by CZECH immigrants, reportedly was the first hall in the city owned by a nationality group.

BOHM, EDWARD H. (7 Feb. 1838-7 May 1906), was a Civil War officer, newspaper publisher, and public official. Born in Alstedt, Saxe-Weimar, Germany, his family settled on a farm in NEWBURGH, Ohio in 1851. Bohm left the farm in 1856 to work on the Cleveland & Toledo Railroad until the CIVIL WAR broke out, when enlisted in Co. K, 7th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, on 18 Apr.

BOHN, ERNEST J. (1901-15 Dec. 1975), was a nationally known expert on PUBLIC HOUSING. Born in Hungary, the son of Frank J. and Juliana (Kiry) Bohn, he came to Cleveland with his father in 1911, graduating from Adelbert College in 1924 and Western Reserve Law School in 1926.

BOIARDI, HECTOR (1897-21 June 1985), known to millions as Chef Boy-ar-dee, began as a local restaurateur. Boiardi, son of Joseph and Mary (Maffi) Boiardi, began cooking in Italy at 10. He left for New York about 1914 to work at the Ritz Carlton. He came to Cleveland 3 years later as chef at the Hotel Winton, where his spaghetti dinners became the talk of the Midwest.

BOLE, ROBERTA HOLDEN (30 Sept. 1876-28 Oct. 1950) was a philanthropist who helped establish Holden Arboretum, classes for gifted children in the CLEVELAND PUBLIC SCHOOL System, and helped preserve DUNHAM TAVERN.

BOLLES, JAMES A. (2 May 1810-19 Sept. 1894), controversial rector of Trinity Church from 1855-59, was born in Norwich, Conn., the son of Ralph and Happy (Branch) Bolles. After graduating from Trinity College in Hartford (1830) and studying at the General Seminary in New York, in 1834 Bolles became an Episcopal priest and rector of St. James Church in Batavia, N.Y. In 1853, primarily through Samuel L.

BOLT, RICHARD ARTHUR (12 Mar. 1880-3 Aug. 1959), a physician and director of the CLEVELAND CHILD HEALTH ASSOCIATION, was born in St. Louis to Richard Orchard and Mary Virginia Belt Bolt. He studied at Washington University before transferring to the University of Michigan, earning his A.B. in 1904 and his Ph.D.

BOLTON AVE. PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. See CALVARY PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH.


The BOLTON FOUNDATION, founded in 1952 in Cleveland by FANNY HANNA BOLTON (d. 1982), was based on the philosophy of HOWARD MELVILLE HANNA, SR., Bolton's grandfather.

BOLTON, CHARLES CHESTER (23 March 1855 - 31 July 1930) was a distinguished Cleveland businessman, civic leader, philanthropist and member of a prominent Cleveland pioneer family. He was a partner in M.A. HANNA CO., and was an charter member of Troop A.

BOLTON, CHESTER CASTLE (5 Sept. 1882-29 Oct. 1939), an industrialist, Ohio senator, and U.S. congressman, was born in Cleveland to Chas. C. and Julia Castle Bolton. His father was a prominent Cleveland businessman and philanthropist, and his mother was the daughter of former Cleveland mayor WM. B. CASTLE.

BOLTON, FANNY MANN HANNA (6 Dec. 1907-9 May 1980) was a major contributor to and trustee of University Hospitals and was the founder of the Bolton Foundation.

BOLTON, FRANCES PAYNE (29 Mar. 1885-9 Mar. 1977), served as Republican congresswoman for 29 years and supported projects in nursing, health, and education. Born in Cleveland to banker-industrialist Chas. W.

BOLTON, KENYON C. (29 Mar. 1912-14 July 1983), philanthropist, military officer, and diplomat, served as Special Assistant to the U.S. Ambassador to France (1949-52) and as Honorary French Consul (1975-80), among other positions. He was awarded military honors by four countries, including the U.S. Bronze Star and the French Legion of Honor (1961), and the French Colonial Medal (1945).

BOLTON, SARAH KNOWLES (15 Sept. 1841-21 Feb. 1916), was a prolific writer of biographical studies, poetry, and a temperance novel. Born in Farmington, Conn., the daughter of John Segar and Mary Elizabeth Miller Knowles, she came to Cleveland in 1866 after marrying Chas. E. Bolton, a Cleveland businessman and active worker in temperance activities.

BOLTON, THOMAS (29 Nov. 1809-1 Feb. 1871), a prominent lawyer, was born in Scipio, N.Y. to Thomas and Hannah (Henry) Bolton. He attended Harvard University (1829-33), there meeting his future partner Moses Kelley. Bolton studied law in Canandaigua, N.Y.; came to Cleveland in Sept. 1834; and was admitted to the bar in 1835. In 1836 he and Kelley formed the firm of Bolton & Kelley.

The BOND STORE was the major example of Art Moderne commercial architecture in Cleveland. The Bond Clothing Co., which had occupied a store in the old Hickox Bldg. on the northwest corner of Euclid and E. 9th St. for many years since 1920, demolished the building in 1946 and erected its own store on the site.

BOND, ROBERT L. (17 Jan. 1917-19 April 1990) spent his life in social work, and was a leader in the activities of Cleveland's neighborhood centers.

BONE, JOHN HERBERT ALOYSIUS (J.H.A.) (31 Oct. 1830-17 Sept. 1906) upheld literary standards on 2 Cleveland newspapers for half a century. The son of a British army officer, he was born in Penryn, Cornwall, and diverted from a similar career by a boyhood accident which left his right arm crippled. He married Ellen Carpenter and brought her directly to Cleveland in 1851.