Esther I. Bernhofer, PhD, MA, RN, PMGT-BC

Associate Professor
Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing
Assistant Professor
Department of Bioethics
School of Medicine

Teaching Information

Teaching Interests

  • Management of acute and chronic pain
  • Ethics in healthcare and research
  • Qualitative methodology
  • Theory

Research Information

Research Interests

  • Ethics in pain management
  • Conscientious practice
  • Theory development

Awards and Honors

Distinguished Nurse of the Year Award Nominee
March of Dimes (Ohio)
Research Poster of the Year
American Society for Pain Management Nursing (ASPMN)
Faces of Care Award - Nursing Research
Cleveland Clinic


  • Bernhofer E. I. (2022). Practical ethics of pain care in the perioperative environment. Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of Perianesthesia Nurses, S1089-9472(22)00597-4.
  • Bray, K., Winkelman, C., Bernhofer, E. I., & Marek, J. F. (2020). Procedural Pain in the Adult Neurological Intensive Care Unit: A Retrospective Study Examining Arterial Line Insertion. Pain Management Nursing, 21(4), 323-330.
  • Bernhofer, E. (2020). 2E Using a values-based pain management model to identify and bridge the gaps in pain management. Pain Management Nursing, 21(2), 210.
  • Bernhofer, E. I. (2019). Bioethics and pain management: a new and practical application. Pain Management Nursing, 20(2), 99.
  • Bernhofer, E. I., & Burchill, C. N. (2019). Developing and evaluating multiple-choice tests for trustworthiness. Journal for Nurses in Professional Development, 35(4), 204-209. doi:10.1097/NND.0000000000000539
  • Bernhofer, E. I., & Kelsey, N. C. (2018). Pain Management Education for Nurses: Simulation vs. Traditional Lecture, a Comparative Parallel-Group Design Study. Pain Management Nursing, 19(2), 102.
  • Bernhofer, E., & Fink, K. (2018). Measuring pain management values in clinicians: development and psychometric analysis of a new instrument. The Journal of Pain, 19(3), S96.
  • Bernhofer, E. I., Marie, B. S., & Bena, J. F. (2017). A New Clinical Pain Knowledge Test for Nurses:   Development and Psychometric Evaluation. Pain Management Nursing, 18(4), 224-233. doi:
  • Bernhofer, E. I., Masina, V. M., Sorrell, J., & Modic, M. B. (2017). The pain experience of patients hospitalized with inflammatory bowel disease: a phenomenological study. Gastroenterology Nursing, 40(3), 200-207. doi: 10.1097/SGA.0000000000000137.
  • Bernhofer, E.I., Hosler, R. & Karius, D. (2016). Nurses’ written responses to pain management values education: a content analysis. Pain Management Nursing, 17(6) 384-391.
  • Bernhofer, E.I. (2016). Investigating the concept of rest for research and practice. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 72(5), 1012–1022. doi: 10.1111/jan.12910


Doctor of Philosophy
Case Western Reserve University
Master of Arts
The Ohio State University
Bachelor of Science in Nursing
University of Akron