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"ANDREWS'S FOLLY" was the popular name for the home of SAMUEL ANDREWS, one of the original partners of the firm that became the STANDARD OIL CO. in 1870.

ANDREWS, SAMUEL (10 Feb. 1836-15 Apr. 1904), was a poor English immigrant who became a pioneer in the oil industry and cofounder of the STANDARD OIL CO. Born in Oaksey, England, a candlemaker by trade with little formal education, Andrews arrived in Cleveland in 1857.

ANDREWS, SHERLOCK JAMES (17 Nov. 1801-11 Feb. 1880), one of Cleveland's first lawyers, was considered the father of the Cleveland Bar. Andrews was born in Wallingford, Conn., the son of John and Abigail Andrews. After graduating with high honors from Union College in 1821, Andrews studied law at the New Haven Law School.

ANDRICA, THEODORE (9 Aug. 1900-1 Mar. 1990) chronicled the affairs of Cleveland's diverse ethnic population for 46 years as Nationalities Editor of the CLEVELAND PRESS. Born in Radna, Romania, he emigrated to the United States in 1920.

The ANGLE was an Irish ghetto that developed on Cleveland's near west side in the late 1860s. The Angle was generally defined as the parish of ST. MALACHI'S CHURCH, an area north of Detroit Ave., east of W. 28th St., and down Washington Ave. to WHISKEY ISLAND, which it included.

The ANIMAL PROTECTIVE LEAGUE, founded in 1912 and incorporated in 1913, is a voluntary organization that accepts, picks up, and shelters unwanted or homeless animals, putting them up for adoption or destroying them if not adopted. Miss Stella Hatch and Mrs. Virgil A. (Edith) Dustin organized the league, which cared for 3,661 animals in 1917.

ANISFIELD, JOHN (5 March 1860-22 April 1929) was a successful clothing manufacturer, real estate executive, and civic leader who devoted his wealth to a variety of philanthropic projects in Cleveland. Born in the capital of the Austrian Empire, Vienna, to Israel and Amelia (Geldwerth) Anisfield, John acquired his primary and technical education in the city's schools.

The ANNALS OF CLEVELAND was a white-collar work relief project sponsored jointly by the CLEVELAND PUBLIC LIBRARY, the Cuyahoga County Recorder's Office, and the HISTORICAL RECORDS SURVEY relief program of the WORKS PROGRESS ADMINISTRATION from 1936 t

The ANNUNCIATION GREEK ORTHODOX CHURCH, the first Greek Orthodox Church established in Cleveland, formed the basis for all subsequent congregations. It originated in the Pan-Hellenic Union, which first worshipped in 1910.

ANNUNCIATION PARISH. See ST. PATRICK'S PARISH.


ANSHE CHESED (Fairmount Temple), established as a German Orthodox congregation in 1841 and chartered on 28 Feb. 1842, is the oldest existing Jewish congregation in Cleveland. Its Hebrew name means "people of loving kindness." The temple was formed after 30 members of the Israelitic Society of Cleveland, the city''s first congregation, seceded in a dispute over religious ritual.

ANSHE EMETH (PARK SYNAGOGUE), the first "Jewish Center" west of the Alleghenies and, by the 1940s, the largest Conservative congregation in the U.S., was founded by Jewish POLES in 1857. The congregation met for services in rented halls until 1880, when it purchased the Erie St. Methodist Church on E. 9th St. near Woodland Ave.

ANSHE SFARD. See OHEB ZEDEK.


ANTI-SALOON LEAGUE. See TEMPERANCE.


ANTI-SLAVERY SOCIETIES, BLACK, formed in the Cleveland area in the 1850s, were distinct from the earlier, integrated groups such as the CLEVELAND ANTI-SLAVERY SOCIETY and the CUYAHOGA COUNTY ANTI-SLAVERY SOCIETY. John Mercer Langston of Oberlin was a leader in forming these organizations.

ANTIOCH BAPTIST CHURCH was established by Reverend Alexander Moore in January 1893 as Cleveland's second Baptist church for AFRICAN AMERICANS. Unhappy with the leadership of the SHILOH BAPTIST CHURCH, a small band of members began meeting informally in October 1892 in the home of Henry Myers at 10 Laurel (2327 E. 29th) St.

The ANVIL REVUE is a satirical production presented annually by the CITY CLUB OF CLEVELAND, in which members and others poke fun at politics, institutions, and people in the news.

APOLLO'S FIRE, a 17th and 18th century baroque orchestra based in CLEVELAND HEIGHTS , first performed in June of 1992. The group was founded by Jeannette Sorrell of the Oberlin Baroque Performance Institute (faculty, 1990-1994), in collaboration with Roger Wright, then Artistic Administrator of the CLEVELAND ORCHESTRA.

APPLIED INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGIES (formerly known as Bearings, Inc.) is one of the country's largest distributors of ball bearings, bearing specialties, and power transmissions. Joseph Bruening founded the Ohio Ball Bearing Co. in 1923 as a sales, distribution, and service organization selling mainly automobile and truck replacement parts.

The AQUARAMA, the largest passenger ship to operate on the Great Lakes, was built in 1945 in Chester, PA as a troop transport ship named the Marine Star. The 520-ft. ship with a gross tonnage of 12,733 was equipped with a single-screw, oil-fired, turbine-propelled engine. The freighter was purchased in 1953 by Sand Products Co.

ARAB AMERICANS. Cleveland's Arab population, although among the smaller ethnic groups, has a clear identity and historical development since Arabs began arriving here in the 19th century. In 1995 there were approx. 35,000 Americans of Arab descent in Greater Cleveland. The term Arab requires clarification. As with most peoples, language is the defining factor; an Arab-American is one whose ancestral tongue is Arabic.

The ARAB SOCIAL CLUB, formed in the late 1970s, is described as "a local center for pro-Palestinian Arab-Americans." It served as a social political center on Palestinian affairs, providing members access to Palestinian newspapers and magazines and video cassettes of speeches. Occasionally the club expressed its political views publicly, as in a telegram to Pres.

ARABICA cafes have proved to be popular gathering spots for Greater Clevelanders since 1976. Carl Jones opened the first Arabica coffee house that year on Coventry Blvd. (see COVENTRY VILLAGE BUSINESS DISTRICT), and though it was damaged by a fire soon after, it re-opened in May 1977.

The ARAGON was Cleveland's last surviving ballroom from the big-band era. Opened by Lloyd Harry Meyers in October 1930, it was located in a former roller rink at 3139 W. 25 St., near Clark Ave. Among the entertainers who played there to crowds of up to 2,000 were Glenn Miller, the Dorseys, Freddy Martin, Harry James, Guy Lombardo, and the Andrews Sisters.

ARBUTHNOT, MAY HILL (August 27, 1884-October 2, 1969) was a nationally known educator and author who wrote several children's books and works on early childhood education. Born May Hill in Mason City, Iowa, to Frank and Mary E. (Seville) Hill, she received a Bachelor of Arts from the University of Chicago in 1922 and an Master of Arts from Columbia University in 1924.

The ARCADE is an internationally renowned structure which has no peer in the U.S. and has been compared with the Galleria Vittorio Emmanuele in Milan, Italy. Erected at a cost of $867,000, the Arcade opened on Memorial Day 1890. It was built by a company of which STEPHEN V. HARKNESS was president. The architects were GEO.

ARCHITECTURE. Cleveland's innovations in certain areas of architectural planning have displayed a progressiveness and vision matched by few other cities. The 1903 Group Plan, which produced widespread national admiration at the time, is only one example. In the 1920s, the plan of the CLEVELAND UNION TERMINAL complex anticipated many of the features of Rockefeller Center.

ARCHITECTURE, CIVIC. In Cleveland, as elsewhere, the architecture of government is an indication of the civilization of the city. Almost without exception, the city's civic buildings have been in the classical modes that were the standard for government buildings throughout America's history.

ARCHITECTURE, RESIDENTIAL. Throughout the city's history, the residential architecture of Cleveland has generally followed the trends of the rest of the nation. It cannot be said that Cleveland produced a distinctive architects' style like Chicago's Prairie style, or a characteristically regional style like that of the San Francisco Bay area.

ARCHITECTURE, SACRED. Of the hundreds of sacred structures in Cleveland, there are several of national importance. ST. JOHN'S EPISCOPAL CHURCH (ded. 1838) is one of the earliest examples extant in the nation of the Gothic Revival style.

The ARCHWOOD UNITED CHURCH OF CHRIST was established in 1819 as a Presbyterian church by the "Plan of Union" (a joint Congregational-Presbyterian church-founding effort) and later augmented by the merger with Fourth Evangelical & Reformed Church. Circuit preachers served the church until a permanent minister was hired in 1834.

The ARCHWOOD UNITED CHURCH OF CHRIST was established in 1819 as a Presbyterian church by the "Plan of Union" (a joint Congregational-Presbyterian church-founding effort) and later augmented by the merger with Fourth Evangelical & Reformed Church. Circuit preachers served the church until a permanent minister was hired in 1834.

ARENA. See CLEVELAND ARENA.


The ARK was an informal gathering place for the early Cleveland intelligentsia which led to the establishment of many of the city's cultural institutions, especially the CLEVELAND MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. It was a one-story wooden building originally erected on the northeast corner of PUBLIC SQUARE ca.

ARMENIANS. Armenian immigration to Cleveland began in 1906 or 1907, when employees of the AMERICAN STEEL & WIRE CO. factory in Worcester, MA, came to Cleveland to work in a newly opened branch of that firm.

ARMINGTON, RAYMOND Q. (12 Jan. 1907-19 Apr. 1993) was an engineer and executive with the Euclid Road Machinery Co., a founder and chairman of the Webb-Triax Co. and headed numerous business, educational and civic organizations.

ARMSTRONG, WILLIAM W. (18 Mar. 1833-21 Apr. 1905), was a local newspaper publisher and Democratic party political leader. He was born in New Lisbon, Ohio, and lived there until moving to Tiffin, Ohio, in 1854, where he bought and published a local newspaper. In 1857 he married Sarah Virginia Hedges; they had one daughter, Isabella.

The ARPAD ACADEMY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES, a professional organization founded to recognize and support scientists, authors, and artists of Hungarian descent, was founded in 1965 by JOHN B. NADAS. Nadas, a native of Hungary, came to the U.S. in 1950 and settled in Lakewood shortly thereafter. He soon became a leader in Hungarian-American affairs.

ART. The development of an art life in Cleveland primarily resulted from the efforts of 2 distinctly different groups within the community: the wealthy patrons of art and the artists themselves. The first group consisted of families who accumulated their wealth from industry and commerce; the artists derived mainly from the German community.

The ART CLUB (also known as the Old Bohemians and the City Hall Colony) was founded by ARCHIBALD WILLARD in 1876. The group was initially composed of artists and friends, primarily of German extraction, who met at Willard's studio in the Union Natl. Bank Bldg. to discuss art and draw from live models.

The ART LOAN EXHIBITIONS were special exhibitions held in 1878, 1893, and 1894 to benefit poor relief and to stimulate interest in art in Cleveland. As in the later shows, the women who organized the 1878 exhibition appealed to both local and national collectors for the loan of works. More than 40,000 people attended the event, many on excursion trains from such points as Erie and Toledo. The Loan Assn.

ARTER & HADDEN, Cleveland's oldest legal partnership, traces its origins to the 1843 partnership of Willey & Cary. Opening an office in the Hancock Block (Superior and W. 3rd St.), George Willey started his law practice shortly after his admission to the Ohio Bar in 1842. He was joined the following year by another recent admittant to the bar, John Cary.

ARTER, CHARLES KINGSLEY (24 Apr. 1875-22 Mar. 1957) was a senior partner in the Cleveland-based firm of ARTER & HADDEN, founded in 1843 as Willey & Cary, the oldest law firm in Ohio.

ARTHUR ANDERSEN, LLP, is a major accounting firm providing a wide range of professional services in accounting, auditing, tax consultation, management-information systems, and specialty consulting through 358 offices in 74 countries. Established in Chicago in 1913 as Andersen, Delany & Co., it employed 37,000 throughout the U.S. in 1995.

ARTHUR, ALFRED F. (8 Oct. 1844-20 Nov. 1918), was a noted tenor, cornetist, conductor, educator, composer, and compiler. Son of Hamilton and Margaret (Hanna) Arthur, he was born in Pittsburgh and received his early training in Ashland, Ohio, and at the Boston Music School.

ARTL, JOSEPH A. (31 Jan. 1893-23 June 1970) was one of Cuyahoga County's most respected public officials in a career spanning 4 decades. A product of Cleveland's Fleet Ave. neighborhood, he was the son of Bohemian immigrants, Mr. and Mrs. John Artl.

ASBURY SEMINARY, incorporated in 1839 in CHAGRIN FALLS by the Methodist Conference, offered an advanced secondary education during the mid-1800s. It provided teacher training, business education, and a college preparatory course. The seminary was named for Rev. Francis Asbury, an American Methodist bishop. Rev. Lorenzo D.

ASHMUN, GEORGE COATES (31 Jan. 1841-25 June 1929) became a distinguished medical professor and civic official while remaining one of Cleveland's most illustrious CIVIL WAR veterans.