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WOOLSON, CONSTANCE FENIMORE (5 March 1840-24 January 1894), author, was born in Claremont, New Hampshire, to Charles Jarvis and Hannah Pomeroy Woolson. The family moved to Cleveland later that year after scarlet fever killed three of her sibling in three weeks. While living in Cleveland, Constance came to know the Lake County region and Tuscarawas Valley, which would later appear in her books.

The WORK WEAR CORP. was incorporated as the Cleveland Overall Co. by SAMUEL ROSENTHAL in 1915 to manufacture industrial work clothes. In 1919 he bought the Natl. Railway Overall Co., which made bib overalls and other work garments.

The WORKERS GYMNASTIC UNION, known by the initials of its Czech name, Delnicke Telecvicne Jednoty (DTJ), is a Czech gymnastic association formed in Cleveland in 1909 to promote socialism, gymnastics, and to retain Czech heritage among members. The DTJ organized in Prague in 1897. Members of the socialist Ferdinand Lassalle Society dramatic and educational club organized the first American DTJ unit in Cleveland in 1909.

The WORKMEN'S CIRCLE, or Arbeiter Ring, is a secular Jewish fraternal organization founded to build a better world, foster cultural Jewishness, and offer friendships. Part of the national Workmen's Circle, started in 1900, the first Cleveland branch (#79) was chartered in 1904 to work for social legislation.

The WORKS PROGRESS ADMINISTRATION (WPA) in Cleveland provided needed income for a substantial portion of the city's population as well as improving and developing the area's transportation network, parks, and recreational facilities. The primary purpose of the WPA program, part of the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act passed in April 1935, was to give employment to those on relief, the bulk of whom were unskilled.

The WORLD PUBLISHING CO., a major publisher of Bibles, dictionaries, and children's and trade books, was begun in 1902 by Alfred H. Cahen, a Polish immigrant. Practicing his trade as a bookbinder, by 1905 Cahen had opened the Commercial Bookbinding Co. in the CAXTON BLDG., and by 1912 he added a printing plant.

WORLD WAR I. With a population of 560,665 on the eve of World War I, Cleveland stood as the 6th-largest city in the U.S. It thrived economically on the manufacture of iron and steel, paints and varnishes, foundry and machine-shop products, and electrical machinery and supplies. Although recently surpassed by Detroit in automobile production, it still excelled in the making of auto accessories.

WORLD WAR II. When Japan attacked the U.S. at Pearl Harbor on the morning of 7 Dec. 1941, the ranking American victim was a native Clevelander, Rear Adm. ISSAC C. KIDD, aboard the Arizona. Before V-J Day, his death would be followed by those of nearly 4,000 more Clevelanders out of a total of 160,000 called to service.

WORTHINGTON, GEORGE (21 Sept. 1813-9 Nov. 1871), founder of Cleveland Iron & Nail Works, Cleveland Iron Mining Co., and GEO. WORTHINGTON CO., was born in Cooperstown, N.Y. to Ralph and Clarissa Clarke Worthington, completed a common-school education, and started his career in 1830 as a hardware store clerk in Utica.

WRIGHT AIRLINES, INC., was established in 1966 by Gerry Weller and Ernie Rolls to provide service between downtown Cleveland and downtown Detroit. Based at BURKE LAKEFRONT AIRPORT, it served the businessmen of both cities and helped alleviate congestion at the two major airports.

WRIGHT, ALONZO G. (30 Apr. 1898-17 Aug. 1976), a black southern migrant who became a millionaire, was born in Fayetteville, Tenn., son of Alonzo and Joyce Kelso Wright. He worked as a shoeshine boy and a messenger and moved to Cleveland in the early 1910s.

WRIGHT, JOHN D. (25 June 1905 - 2 May 1997) was chairman of the board and chief executive officer at TRW, INC. from 1958 until his retirement in 1969. He was born in Pittsburgh to Charles R. and Annie (Williams) Wright. He earned his B.A. from Adelbert College of Western Reserve University in 1927, and a law degree from the Western Reserve University School of Law in 1929.

WRIGHT, WALTER BENJAMIN (1852-1939) advanced from railroad porter to secretary for the industry's top administrators. He was born in Harrisonburg, WV, and moved to Columbus, OH, at 12 years old. Wright started out as a porter on the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern RAILROADS and then became porter on the private car of Daniel W. Caldwell, general superintendent of the Panhandle Railroad (1873).

WRMR was a staple of the Cleveland airwaves for more than 40 years under its original call letters of WJW. The station was started in Mansfield, OH, in 1926 by John F. Winer, who placed a "W" before his own initials for the call letters. The station did not come to Cleveland until 13 Nov. 1943, when Wm. M.

WTAM. See WWWE.


WVIZ (Channel 25) was inaugurated on 7 Feb. 1965 to bring noncommercial, educational television to the last major city in the U.S. without it. It materialized through the efforts of a committee of civic and educational leaders appointed by Mayor ANTHONY J.

WWWE originated in Sept. 1923 as WTAM, created by Theodore Willard (see WILLARD STORAGE BATTERY CO.) and S. E. Lawrence. Broadcasting originally at 750 kilocycles and 1,500 watts, WTAM offered a 3-hour schedule of evening programs. Its power was soon increased to 3,500 watts, and the station moved to the Union Trust Bldg.

WYSE ADVERTISING, a Cleveland-based agency, was founded by Marcus (Marc) and Lois Wyse in 1951.

WZAK radio began broadcasting on 26 May 1963 as an ethnic radio station. Founders included Joseph and Elizabeth Bauer, who operated the station, and Xenophon Zapis. It was the first full-time ethnic radio station in Cleveland, and it offered programming in 17 foreign languages, including programs in Hungarian, German (hosted by the Bauers), Greek (hosted by Zapis), Arabic, and Hindi.

The YELLOW CAB CO. became Cleveland's major taxicab service after receiving a monopoly within the city from city council in 1934. A Yellow Cab Co. was organized in Cleveland as early as 1923, operating from E. 49th St. and Superior. It had apparently merged with the Red Top Cab Co. by 1926, altered its name to the Cleveland Yellow Cab Co., and moved into Red Top's former location at 1500-1538 Lakeside Ave.

YESHIVATH ADATH B'NAI ISRAEL (YABI) is an Orthodox Jewish afternoon school for grades K-12. It was established in 1915 because its founders charged that the existing Talmud Torah was not providing a Jewish education to its pupils. Congregation Shomre Shabbos agreed to let the school use its synagogue at E. 37th St. and Woodland as the first school site.

Die YIDDISHE VELT (Jewish World) was Cleveland's principal Yiddish-language newspaper for over 40 years. It had been preceded by the Yiddishe Tegliche Presse (Jewish Daily Press), founded on 1 May 1908 by SAMUEL ROCKER, Adolph Haas, and Jonas Gross. Rocker sold out 2 years later and then brought out the Jewish World in 1911.

The YODER CO. was the largest manufacturer of electric welded tube and pipe mills and roll-forming mills for the agricultural, automotive, petroleum, appliance, electrical, and aerospace industries. Founders Carl M. and Henry Yoder were draftsmen for the Swartwout Mfg. Co. in the early 1900s, when Carl devised a way to mold scrap sheet steel.

The YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSN. of Cleveland, one of the country's first, was founded in 1854 to prevent "the ruin, physical and spiritual, which overtakes so large a proportion of the multitude of young men constantly arriving in our city." It operated out of rooms at Superior and W. 3rd streets, offering prayer meetings, a Sunday school, a lending library, and lectures by figures such as Henry Ward Beecher and Cassius M.

The YOUNG MEN'S SOCIETY, or the Colored Young Men's Lyceum, was an organization of black men in Cleveland founded in 1839 to advance and debate information on a variety of subjects. The society was patterned after the then-popular men's lyceum and literary organizations, with weekly meetings open to the general public.

The YOUNG WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSN. (YWCA) in Cleveland was founded as the Women's Christian Assn. of Cleveland 21 Nov. 1868 (inc. April 1869). One of the earliest such groups in the U.S., it promoted the temporal and spiritual welfare of the city's growing numbers of self-supporting women. Initially located at Superior and W.

YOUNG, AGNES BROOKS (18 Nov. 1898-6 Feb. 1974) turned her talents to the writing of novels after achieving wide recognition as an authority on fashion and costuming.

YOUNG, DALLAS M. (15 Jan. 1914-23 July 1990) professor of labor relations and a national figure in the field, was born in Christopher, Illinois, the son of Arvel and Jennie Jordan Young. He graduated from Southern Illinois Teachers College in 1936 with a B. Ed. degree and attended the University of Illinois, receiving an A.M. in 1936 and a Ph.D.

YOUNG, DENTON TRUE "CY" (29 Mar. 1867-4 Nov. 1955), BASEBALL pitcher (1890-11) for the Natl. League CLEVELAND SPIDERS (1890-98) and for Cleveland in the American League (1909-11), winning a major-league record 511 games in his career, was born at Gilmore, Ohio, son of MacKenzie and Nancy Mot Miller Young.

YOUNG, MERRILL A. (15 Aug. 1905-5 Jan. 1993) labor relations expert, was born in Lulu, Michigan, the son of Charles and Sophia Solwich Young. After graduation from Windham, Ohio high school, he came to Cleveland in the 1920s and began working as a shipping clerk at Cleveland Graphite Bronze, eventually mastering all aspects of bearing manufacture.

YOUNGLOVE, MOSES C. (13 Dec. 1811-13 Apr. 1892), innovative businessman, was born in Cambridge, N.Y., son of Moses and Hannah (Wells) Younglove. He entered college to study law, but abandoned his studies to go into business. Younglove arrived in Cleveland in 1836, in 1837 joining Edward P. Wetmore in establishing a book and stationery store.

YOUTH DEVELOPMENT CENTER. See CLEVELAND BOYS' SCHOOL.


YUGOSLAVS. See CROATIANS; SLOVENES; and SERBIANS.


ZABOLY, BELA (BILL) (4 May 1910-11 April 1985) made Cleveland the home port of "Popeye the Sailor Man" for 2 decades as artist for the syndicated cartoon strip. Born to Hungarian immigrant parents on Cleveland's west side, Zaboly attended WEST HIGH SCHOOL, where he contributed cartoons to the school newspaper, The West Higher.

ZAMECNIK, JOHN S. (1872-13 June 1953) utilized his experience as a Cleveland theater musician to become a pioneer in the scoring of Hollywood film music. A native Clevelander, he was the son of Bohemian immigrants Joseph and Katherine Zamecnik.

ZANGERLE, JOHN A. (12 Apr. 1866-1 Oct. 1956), Cuyahoga County auditor (1913-51) and the last surviving public official of the TOM L. JOHNSON era, was born in Cleveland to Adam and Maria Reisterer Zangerle, graduated from West High School in 1884, read law, and was admitted to the Ohio bar in 1890 before studying economics at the University of Berlin.

ZAPF, NORMAN F. (14 July 1911-23 June 1974), a mechanical engineer whose research in streamlining led to the design and construction of streamlined locomotives, was born in Cleveland to Herman R. and Mabel (McNess) Zapf. He entered Case School of Applied Science, studying aerodynamics under Dr. Paul Hemke.

The ZARJA SINGING SOCIETY is one of the oldest Slovenian choruses outside of Europe. Zarja (The Dawn) was established in 1916 by Cleveland members of the Jugoslav Socialist Fed., based in Chicago. JOHN IVANUSCH became musical director in 1920 and encouraged the addition of women and expansion into more ambitious musical works.

ZELMAN V. SIMMONS-HARRIS was a landmark Supreme Court case upholding, in a 5-4 decision announced on June 27, 2002, the constitutionality of an Ohio law providing vouchers to Cleveland students to attend the public or private, including parochial, schools of their choice.

ZEVIN, BEN D. (16 May 1901-27 Dec. 1984) built the WORLD PUBLISHING CO. into one of the country's leading book publishers in the period during and after WORLD WAR II. Born in the Ukraine, U.S.S.R., he came to America with his family and settled in New York City early in the 20th century.

ZHUN, ELLEN MARIE STEMPIEN (17 Aug. 1922-5 Jan. 1993) was a real estate broker and one of the first female land developers in the Cleveland area when she created Foxcroft Estates in Russell Township in the early 1970s. She was also an interior designer.

ZIMMERMAN, CHARLES X. (18 Jan. 1865-14 Nov. 1926) military commander, businessman, civic activist, and sportsman, was born in Cleveland, the son of Charles X. and Theresa Reis Zimmerman. After receiving his education in Cleveland public schools, he joined the Ohio National Guard 8 May 1884 and rose through the ranks to become a captain. He served in the Spanish American War 1898-99 and was promoted to Colonel.

ZION EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN CHURCH, incorporated on 17 Mar. 1847, helped launch 5 other Lutheran churches of the Missouri Synod in Cleveland. It began on 14 Apr. 1843 when 45 communicants from another congregation organized the German Evangelical Lutheran Church. For 5 years, the congregation worshipped in Concert Hall, on the north side of Superior Ave., between Seneca (W. 3rd) and Bank (W. 6th) streets. Rev.

The ZION MUSICAL SOCIETY may have been the first public Jewish singing organization during the 19th century in America. Formed in 1861 by Rabbi/Cantor GUSTAVE M. COHEN, the society not only performed congregational work but also sang outside of the synagogue. Rabbi Cohen was European-born and educated and, significantly, was the first trained cantor in America.