John J. Mieyal, PhD

Emeritus Professor
Department of Pharmacology
School of Medicine
Molecular Therapeutics Training Program
School of Medicine
Developmental Therapeutics Program
Case Comprehensive Cancer Center

Recent research emphasis in Dr. Mieyal’s laboratory (closed in 2018) was focused on mechanisms of alterations in redox regulation in Parkinson’s disease and cardiovascular diseases, both prevalent among the elderly. He continues to serve as a reviewer for multiple scientific journals. Dr. Mieyal is recognized internationally for advancing knowledge of redox regulation and signal transduction in health and disease, especially involving the glutaredoxin and thioredoxin enzyme systems. Professor Mieyal has been a featured speaker at many international symposia on Redox Regulation and Thiol Homeostasis in recent years, including those sponsored by the American Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, the International Redox Network, and the International Gordon Conferences. He has served on scientific review boards for the National Institutes of Health, the American Heart Association, and the Department of Veterans Affairs; and he recently was guest editor for a special Forum Issue of the premier journal Antioxidants and Redox Regulation. Besides recognition for his research, Dr. Mieyal has won several University awards for his medical and graduate school teaching and mentorship, most recently the first annual Inamori Award for Excellence in Mentoring, and he has served on the Pharmacology Committee of the National Board of Medical Examiners. Dr. Mieyal has mentored numerous MS, PhD, MD/PhD., and postdoctoral trainees. Nineteen of the former trainees are engaged in academic research careers, five hold positions in industrial research, and several are pursuing clinical careers.

Research Information

Research Interests

Modulation of the thiol-disulfide status of critical cysteine residues on proteins is becoming recognized as an important mechanism of oxidative signal transduction as well as an important consequence of oxidative stress associated with aging and various disease states, including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, AIDS, and cancer. Within these various contexts, a prevalent form of cysteine modification is reversible formation of protein mixed disulfides (protein-SSG) with intracellular glutathione (GSH).

Research Projects

Our laboratory is focused on the molecular mechanisms and physiological implications of enzymes that catalyze thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase (TDOR) reactions. In particular, we have characterized glutaredoxin (thioltransferase) as the TDOR enzyme that displays specificity and high catalytic efficiency for protein-SSG substrates, including hemoglobin-SSG, NF1-SSG, HIV-protease-SSG, and actin-SSG. This realization has placed made glutaredoxin a focal point in advancing understanding of protein-S-glutathionylation as a regulatory mechanism akin to phosphorylation of proteins. We are employing a range of cellular, molecular, and structural biology approaches to delineate the molecular basis for glutaredoxin catalysis and its role in regulation of fundamental cellular processes like proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. A key objective in our research program is to characterize also the mechanisms of formation of specific protein-SSG intermediates and identify the enzymes responsible for catalyzing these reactions within cells. We are also focused on delineating changes in the regulation of protein-SSG status of specific effector proteins associated with the various disease states that involve oxidative stress.


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Gallogly MM, Shelton MD, Qanungo S, Pai HV, Starke DW, Hoppel CL, Lesnefsky EJ, and Mieyal JJ (2010), Glutaredoxin (Grx1) regulates apoptosis in cardiomyocytes via NFκB targets Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL: implications for cardiac agingAntioxidants & Redox Signaling, [Epub Nov. 25, 2009], in press. 

Shelton MD, Distler AM, Kern TS, Mieyal JJ. (2009), Glutaredoxin regulates autocrine and paracrine pro-inflammatory responses in retinal glial (Muller) cellsJ Biol Chem. 284, 4760-4766. 

Gallogly, M.M., D.W. Starke, and J.J. Mieyal, Mechanistic and Kinetic Details of Catalysis of Thiol-Disulfide Exchange by Glutaredoxins and Potential Mechanisms of Regulation, invited forum review article in Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, 11, 1059-1081 (2009). 

Zhu X, Gallogly MM, Mieyal JJ, Anderson VE, Sayre LM, Covalent cross-linking of glutathione and carnosine to proteins by 4-oxo-2-nonenalChem. Res. Toxicol. 22,1050-1059 (2009). 

Park JW, Mieyal JJ, Rhee SG, Chock PB. (2009) Deglutathionylation of 2-Cys peroxiredoxin is specifically catalyzed by sulfiredoxinJ Biol Chem. 284, 23364-23374. 

Mieyal JJ, Gallogly MM, Qanungo S, Sabens EA, and Shelton MD, Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Implications of Reversible Protein S-Glutathionylation, invited comprehensive review in Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 10, 1941-1988 (2008). 

Shelton, M.D., T.S. Kern & J.J Mieyal, Glutaredoxin Regulates Nuclear Factor kappa-B and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule in Muller Cells: Model of Diabetic RetinopathyJ. Biol. Chem., 282, 12467-12474 (2007). 

Gallogly, M.M., D.W. Starke, A.K. Leonberg, S.M. Ospina, and J.J. Mieyal, Kinetic and mechanistic characterization and versatile catalytic properties of mammalian glutaredoxin 2: implications for intracellular rolesBiochemistry 47, 11144 -11157 (2008). 

Pai, H.V., D.W. Starke, E.J. Lesnefsky, C.L. Hoppel, and J.J. Mieyal, What is the Functional Significance of the Unique Localization of Glutaredoxin 1 (GRx1) in the Intermembrane Space of Mitochondria? Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, 9, 1-7 (2007). 

Gallogly MM, Mieyal JJ., Mechanisms of reversible protein glutathionylation in redox signaling and oxidative stressCurr Opin Pharmacol.7, 381-391 (2007). 

Qanungo S., D.W. Starke, H.V. Pai, J.J. Mieyal, Nieminen AL., Glutathione Supplementation Potentiates Hypoxic Apoptosis by S-Glutathionylation of p65-NF{kappa}BJ Biol Chem. 282, 18427-18436 (2007). 

Jao, S.-C., S. M. English Ospina, C.B. Post, A.J. Berdis, D.W. Starke and J.J. Mieyal (2006), Computational and Mutational Analysis of Human Glutaredoxin (Thioltransferase) - Modeling the Molecular Basis of CatalysisBiochemistry, 45, 4785-4796. 

Asmis R, Wang Y, Xu L, Kisgati M, Begley JG, Mieyal JJ. (2005), A novel thiol oxidation-based mechanism for adriamycin-induced cell injury in human macrophagesFASEB J. 19, 1866-1868. 

M.D. Shelton, P.B. Chock & J.J Mieyal , "Glutaredoxin: Role in Reversible Protein S-Glutathionylation and Regulation of Redox Signal Transduction and Protein Translocation," invited Forum Review in Antioxidants & Redox Signaling , K. Nose, Ed., Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., Larchmont, NY, Vol. 7, ps. 346-364 (2005). 

Starke, D.W., P.B. Chock, and J.J. Mieyal (2003), Glutathione-Thiyl Radical Scavenging and Transferase Properties of Human Glutaredoxin (Thioltransferase) – Potential Role in Redox Signal TransductionJ.Biol. Chem ., 278, 14607-14613. 

Jun Wang, Ephrem Tekle, Hammou Oubrahim, John J. Mieyal , Earl R. Stadtman, and P. Boon Chock (2003), Stable and controllable RNA interference: Investigating the physiological function of glutathionylated actinProc. Nat'l. Acad. Sci. U.S.A 100 , 5103-5106. 

C.A. Chrestensen, D.W. Starke, and J.J. Mieyal , Acute cadmium exposure inactivates thioltransferase (glutaredoxin), inhibits intracellular reduction of protein-glutathione mixed disulfides and initiates apoptosis , J. Biol. Chem. 275 , 26556-26565 (2000). 

Y. Yang ƒ , S.-C. Jao ƒ , S. Nanduri, D. W. Starke, J J. Mieyal *, and J. Qin*, "Reactivity of the Human Thioltransferase (C7S, C25S, C78S, C82S) Mutant and NMR Solution Structure of its Glutathionyl Mixed Disulfide Intermediate Reflect Catalytic SpecificityBiochemistry 37 , 17145-17156 (1998). 

U. Srinivasan, P.A. Mieyal, and J.J. Mieyal , pH Profiles indicative of Rate Limiting Nucleophilic Displacement in Thioltransferase (Glutaredoxin) CatalysisBiochemistry 36 , 3199-3206 (1997). 

S.A. Gravina and J.J. Mieyal , "Thioltransferase is a Specific Glutathionyl Mixed Disulfide Oxidoreductase," Biochemistry 32 3368-3376 (1993).